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DOCTOR Birch, in his ſummary of ſir Thomas Edmondeſ’s ſtate-papers, has publiſhed a ſhort extract from the following obſolete author, which, for the elegance of the Latin, and the remarkable deſcription of queen Elizabeth, has been deſervedly admired: her beſt portraits ſcarcely exhibit a more lively image.
The original work, of which, perhaps there are not above four or five copies in England, is an Itinerary through Germany, England, France, and Italy, performed by Hentzner, a travelling tutor to a young German nobleman. That Dr. Birch has extracted the moſt intereſting paſſage in the whole book is certain: yet it records ſome circumſtances and cuſtoms not unworthy the notice of an Engliſh antiquarian, and which are mentioned no where elſe. For theſe reaſons, I flatter myſelf, that a publication of the part relating to our own country might not be an unacceptable preſent to perſons of curioſity. vi The tranſlation was the production of the idle hours of another gentleman.
The author ſeems to have had that laborious and indiſcriminate paſſion for SEEING which is remarked in his countrymen; and, as his tranſlator obſerved, enjoyed as much the doubtful head, of a more doubtful ſaint in pickle, as any upon the ſhoulders of the beſt Grecian ſtatue. Fortunately ſo memorable a perſonage as queen Elizabeth, happened to fall under his notice! — Ten years later, he would have been as accurate in painting Anne of Denmark!
The exceſs of reſpectful ceremonial uſed at decking her majeſty’s table, though not in her preſence, and the kind of adoration and genuflection paid to her perſon, approach to Eaſtern homage. When we obſerve ſuch worſhip offered to an old woman, with bare neck, black teeth, and falſe red hair, it makes one ſmile; but makes one reflect what maſculine ſenſe was couched under thoſe weakneſſes, and which could command ſuch awe from a nation like England!
Not to anticipate the entertainment of the reader, I ſhall make but one more vii reflection. We are apt to think that ſir William Temple and king William, were in a manner the introducers of gardening into England by the deſcription of lord Burleigh’s gardens at Theobalds, and of thoſe at Nonſuch, we find that the magnificent, though falſe, taſte, was known here as early as the reigns of Henry VIII. and his daughter. There is ſcarce an unnatural and ſumptuous impropriety at Verſailles, which we do not find in Hentzner’s deſcription of the gardens above mentioned.
With regard to the orthography of proper names, though corrected in the tranſlation, I have left them in the original as I found them —— Accuracy in that particular, was not the author’s merit: it is a merit peculiar to Engliſhmen: the French are negligent of it to an affectation; yet the author of Les Melanges Hiſtoriqueſ complains that other nations corrupt French nameſ! He himſelf gives ſome Engliſh ones in p. 247, 248, which is it impoſſible to decypher. Baſſompierre calls Yorkhouſe, Jorchaux, and Kenſington, Inhimthort. As a ſoldier and embaſſador, he was not obliged to know the names of viii houſeſ; when he turned author, there was no excuſe for not being intelligible. Even Voltaire, who writes the language ſo well, is careleſs in our titles. In England, it is the defect of a ſervant to blunder in proper names. It is one of thoſe ſilly pretenſions to politeneſs, which nations that affect a ſuperiority, have always cultivated --- For in all affectations, defects are merits. The readers of hiſtory love certainty: it is pity the writers do not. What confuſion would it have ſaved, if it had not been the cuſtom of the Jews to call every Darius and Artaxerxes, Ahaſueruſ! It were to be wiſhed, that all nations would be content to uſe the appellations which people, or reſpective countries have choſen for themſelves. Proper names ought never to be tortured to any particular idiom. What a ridiculous compoſition is Aulugel! Who can conceive that Meylandt, ſignifies Milan; or Leghorn, Livorno? When one is miſled by a proper name, the only uſe of which is to direct, one feels like the countryman, who complained, That the houſes hindered him from ſeeing Pariſ/ —— The thing becomes an obſtruction to itſelf.
WE arrived at Rye, a ſmall Engliſh ſea-port. here, as ſoon as we came on ſhore, we gave in our names to the notary of the place, but not till he had demanded our buſineſſ; and being anſwered, that we had none but to ſee England, we were conducted to an inn, where we were very well entertained; as one generally is in this country.
We took poſt horſes for London: it is ſurpriſing how ſwiftly they run; their bridles are very light, and their ſaddles little more than a ſpan over.
Flimwell, a village: here we returned our firſt horſes, and mounted freſh oneſ.
We paſſed through Tunbridge, another village.2
Chepſtead, another village: here, for the ſecond time, we changed horſeſ.
London, the head and metropolis of England: called by Tacitus, Londinium; by Ptolomy, Logidinium; by Ammianus Marcellinus, Lundinium; by foreigners, Londra, and Londreſ; it is the ſeat of the Britiſh empire, and the chamber of the Engliſh kings. This moſt ancient city is in the county of Middleſex, the fruifulleſt and wholeſomeſt ſoil in England. It is built on the river Thames, ſixty miles from the ſea, and was originally founded, as all hiſtorians agree, by Brutus, who coming from Greece into Italy, thence into Africa, next into France, and laſt into Britain, choſe this ſituation for the convenience of the river, calling it Troja Nova, which name was afterwards corrupted into Trinovant. But when Lud, the brother of Caſſibilan, or Caſſivelan, who warred againſt Julius Cæſar, as he himſelf mentions, lib. v. de Bell. Gall. came to the crown, he encompaſſed it with very ſtrong walls, and towers very artfully conſtructed , and from his own name called it Caier Lud. i. e. Lud’s City. This name was corrupted into that of Caerlunda, and again in time by change of language, into Londres. Lud, when he died, was buried in this town, near that gate which is yet called in Welſh, Por Lud, in ſaxon, Ludeſgate.
The famous river Thames owes part of its ſtream, as well as its appellation, to the Iſiſ; riſing 3 a little above Winchelcomb, and being increaſed with ſeveral rivulets, unites both its waters and its name to the Thame, on the other ſide of Oxford; thence, after paſſing by London, and being of the utmoſt utility, from its greatneſs and navigation, it opens into a vaſt arm of the ſea, from whence the tide, according to Gemma Friſius, flows and ebbs to the diſtance of eighty miles, twice in twenty-five hours, and, according to Polydore Vergil, above ſixty miles twice in twenty four hourſ.
This city being very large of itſelf, has very extenſive ſuburbs, and a fort called the Tower, of beautiful ſtructure. It is magnificently ornamented, with public buildings and churches, of which there are above one hundred and twenty parochial.
On the ſouth, is a bridge of ſtone eight hundred feet in length, of wonderful work; it is ſupported upon twenty piers of ſquare ſtone, ſixty feet high, and thirty broad, joined by arches of about twenty feet diameter. The whole is covered on each ſide with houſes, ſo diſpoſed, as to have the appearance of a continued ſtreet, not at all of a bridge.
Upon this is built a tower, on whoſe top the heads of ſuch as have been executed for high treaſon, are placed on iron ſpikeſ: we counted above thirty.
Paulus Joviuſ, in his deſcription of the moſt remarkable towns in England, ſays, all are obſcured 4 by London: which in the opinion of many, is Cæſar’s city of the Trinobantes, the capital of all Britain, famous for the commerce of many nationſ; its houſes are elegantly built, its churches fine, its towns ſtrong, and its riches and abundance ſurpriſing. The wealth of the world is wafted to it by the Thames, ſwelled by the tide, and navigable to merchant ſhips, through a ſafe and deep channel for ſixty miles, from its mouth to the city: its banks are every where!--has were--> beautified with fine country ſeats, woods, and farmſ; below, is the royal palace of Greenwich; above, that of Richmond; and between both, on the weſt of London, riſe the noble buildings of Weſtminſter, moſt remarkable for the courts of juſtice, the parliament, and ſt. Peter’s church, enriched with the royal tombs. At the diſtance of twenty miles from London, is the caſtle of Windſor, a moſt delightful retreat of the kings of England, as well as famous for ſeveral of their tombs, and for the ceremonial of the order of the Garter. This river abounds in ſwans, ſwimming in flockſ: the ſight of them and their noiſe, is vaſtly agreeable to the fleets that meet them in their courſe. It is joined to the city by a bridge of ſtone, wonderfully built; is never increaſed by any rains, riſing only with the tide, and is every where ſpread with nets for taking ſalmon and ſhad. Thus far Paulus Joviuſ.
Polydore Vergil affirms, that London has continued to be a royal city, and the capital of the kingdom, crowded with its own inhabitants and foreigners, 5 abounding in riches, and famous for its great trade, from the time of king Archeninus, or Erchenvinus. Here the kings are crowned; and ſolemnly inaugurated, and the council of the nation, or parliament, is held. The government of the city is lodged, by antient grant of the kings of Britain, in twenty-four aldermen, that is ſeniorſ: theſe annually elect out of their own body a mayor, and two ſheriffs, who determine cauſes according to municipal laws. It has always had, as indeed Britain in general has, a great number of men of learning, much diſtinguiſhed for their writingſ.
The walls are pierced with ſix gates, which, as they were rebuilt, acquired new names. Two look weſtward:
1. Ludgate, the oldeſt, ſo called from king Lud, whoſe name is yet to be ſeen, cut in the ſtone over the arch on the ſide; though others imagine it rather to have been named Fludgate, from a ſtream over which it ſtands, like the Porta Fluentana at Rome. It has been lately repaired by queen Elizabeth, whoſe ſtatue is placed on the oppoſite ſide. And,
2. Newgate, the beſt edifice of any: ſo called from being new built, whereas before it was named Chamberlain gate. It is the public priſon.
On the north are four:
1. Alderſgate, as ſome think from alder treeſ; as others, from Aldericius, a ſaxon.6
2. Cripplegate, from an hoſpital for the lame.
3. Moorgate, from a neighbouring moraſs, now converted into a field, firſt opened by Francetiuſ* the mayor, A. D. 1414.
4. And Biſhopſgate, from ſome biſhop: this the German merchants of the Hans ſociety were obliged by compact to keep in repair, and in times of danger to defend. They were in poſſeſſion of a key, to open or ſhut it, ſo that upon occaſion they could come in, or go out, by night, or by day.
There is only one to the eaſt:
Aldgate, that is, Oldgate, from its antiquity; though others think it to have been named Elbegate.
ſeveral people believe, that there were formerly two gates (beſides that to the bridge,) towards the Thameſ.
1. Billingſgate, now a cothon, or artificial port, for the reception of ſhipſ.
2. Dourgate, vulgo Dowgate, i. e, Water-gate.
The cathedral of ſt. Paul was founded by Ethelbert, king of the ſaxons, and being from time to 7 time re-edified, increaſed to vaſtneſs and magnificence, and in revenue ſo much, that if affords a plentiful ſupport to a biſhop, dean, and præcentor, treaſurer, four archdeacons, twenty-nine prebendaries, and many others. The roof of this church, as of moſt others in England, with the adjoining ſteeple, is covered with lead.
On the right ſide of the choir is the marble tomb of Nicholas Bacon, with his wife. Not far from this is a magnificent monument, ornamented with pyramids of marble, and alabaſter, with this inſcription:
Sir Chriſtopher Hatton, ſon of William, grandſon of John, of the moſt antient family of the Hattonſ; one of the fifty gentlemen penſioners to her majeſty queen Elizabeth: Gentleman of the privy-chamber; captain of the guardſ; one of the privy council, and high chancellor of England, and of the univerſity of Oxford: who, to the great grief of his ſovereign, and of all good men, ended this life religiouſly, after having lived unmarried to the age of fifty one, at his houſe in Holborn, on the 20th of November, A. D. 1591.
William Hatton, knight, his nephew by his ſiſter’s ſide, and by adoption his ſon and heir, moſt ſorrowfully raiſed this tomb, as a mark of his duty.8
On the left hand is the marble monument of William Herbert, earl of Pembroke, and his lady; and near it, that of John, duke of Lancaſter, with this inſcription:
Here ſleeps in the Lord, John of Gant, ſo called from the city of the ſame name in Flanders, where he was born, fourth ſon of Edward the Third, king of England, and created by his father earl of Richmond. He was thrice married; firſt to Blanch, daughter and heireſs of Henry duke of Lancaſter; by her he received an immenſe inheritance, and became not only duke of Lancaſter, but earl of Leiceſter, Lincoln, and Derby, of whoſe race are deſcended many emperors, kings, princes, and nobles. His ſecond wife was Conſtance, who is here buried, daughter and heireſs of Peter, king of Caſtile and Leon, in whoſe right he moſt† juſtly took the ſtile of Caſtile and Leon. She brought him one only daughter, Catherine, of whom, by Henry, are deſcended the kings of ſpain. His third wife was Catherine, of a knight’s family, a woman of great beauty, by whom he had a numerous progeny; from which is deſcended, by the mother’s ſide, Henry the ſeventh, the moſt prudent king of England, by whoſe moſt happy marriage with Elizabeth, daughter of Edward the Fourth, of the line of York, the two royal lines of Lancaſter 9 and York are united, to the moſt deſired tranquillity of England.
The moſt illuſtrious prince, John, ſurnamed Plantagenet, king of Caſtile and Leon, duke of Lancaſter, earl of Richmond, Leiceſter, and Derby, lieutenant of Aquitain, high-ſteward of England, died In the twenty-firſt year of Richard II. a. D. 1398.
A little farther, almoſt at the entrance of the choir, in a certain receſs, are two ſmall ſtone cheſts, one of which is thus inſcribed:
>Here lies ſeba, king of the Eaſt ſaxons, who was converted to the faith by ſt. Erkenwald, biſhop of London, A. D. 677.
On the other:
On whom ſt. Duſtan [Qu? Dunſtan] is ſaid to have denounced vengeance, on his coronation-day, in the following wordſ:
“In as much as thou haſt aſpired to the throne by the death of thy brother, againſt whoſe blood the Engliſh, along with thy infamous mother, conſpired, the ſword ſhall not paſs from thy houſe! but rage all the days of thy life, afflicting all thy generation, till thy kingdom ſhall be tranſlated to another, whoſe manner and language the people under thee knoweth not. Nor ſhall thy ſin be 10 done away till after long chaſtiſement, or the ſin of thy mother, nor the ſin of thoſe men who aſſiſted in thy wicked council.”
All which came to paſs, as predicted by the ſaint; for, after being worſted and put to flight by ſueno king of the Danes, and his ſon Canute; and at laſt cloſely beſieged in London, he dies miſerably A. D. 1017, after he had reigned thirty-ſix years in great difficultieſ.
There is beſides in the middle of the church a tomb made of braſs, of ſome biſhop of London, named William, who was in favour with Edward king of England, and afterwards made counſellor to king William. He was biſhop ſixteen years, and died A. D. 1077. Near this, is the following inſcription:
On the lower part of it is this inſcription in gold letterſ:
Thomas Linacre, phyſician to king Henry VIII. a man learned in the Greek and Latin languages, and particularly ſkilful in phyſick, by which he reſtored many from a ſtate of languiſhment and deſpair 11 to life. he tranſlated with extraordinary eloquence many of Galen’s works into Latin; and publiſhed, a little before his death, at the requeſt of his friends, a very valuable book on the correct ſtructure of the Latin tongue. He founded in perpetuity, in favour of ſtudents in phyſick, two public lectures at Oxford, and one at Cambridge. In this city he brought about, by his own induſtry, the eſtabliſhing of a college of phyſicians, of which he was elected the firſt preſident. He was a deteſter of all fraud and deceit, and faithful in his friendſhipſ; equally dear to men of all rankſ: he went into orders a few years before his death, and quitted this life full of years, and much lamented, A. D. 1524, on the twentieth of October.
There are many tombs in this church, but without any inſcriptions. It has a very fine organ, which, at evening prayer, accompanied with other inſtruments, is delightful.
In the ſuburb to the weſt, joined to the city by a continual row of palaces belonging to the chief nobility, of a mile in length, and laying on the ſide next the Thames, is the ſmall town of Weſtminſter; originally called Thornep, from its thorn buſhes, but now Weſtminſter, from its aſpect and its monaſtery. The church is remarkable for the coronation and burial of the kings of England. Upon this ſpot is ſaid formerly to have ſtood a temple of Apollo, which was thrown down by an earthquake in the 12 time of Antoninus Piuſ; from the ruins of which ſebert king of the Eaſt-ſaxons erected another to ſt. Peter, this was ſubverted by the Danes, and again renewed by biſhop Dunſtan, who gave it to a few monks. Afterwards, king Edward the Confeſſor built it entirely new, with the tenth of his whole revenue, to be the place of his own burial, and a convent of Benedictine monkſ; and enriched it with eſtates diſperſed all over England.
In this church the following things are worthy of notice:
In the firſt choir, the tomb of Anne of Cleves, wife of Henry VIII. without any inſcription.
On the oppoſite ſide are two tone ſepulchreſ:
1. Edward, earl of Lancaſter, brother of Edward I. 2. Ademar of Valence, earl of Pembroke, ſon of Ademar of Valence. Joining to theſe is, 2. that of Aveline, counteſs of Lancaſter.
In the ſecond choir is the chair on which the kings are ſeated, when they are crowned; in it is encloſed a ſtone, ſaid to be that on which the patriarch Jacob ſlept, when he dreamed he ſaw a ladder reaching quite up into Heaven. Some Latin verſes are written upon a tablet hanging near it; the ſenſe of which iſ:
That if any faith is to be given to ancient chronicleſ 13 a ſtone of great note is incloſed in this chair, being the ſame on which the patriarch Jacob repoſed, when he beheld the miraculous deſcent of angels. Edward I. the Mars and Hector of England, having conquered ſcotland, brought it from thence.
The tomb of Richard II. and his wife, of braſs, gilt, and theſe verſes round it:
Perfect and prudent, Richard, by right the ſecond,
Vanquiſh’d* by fortune, lies here now graven in ſtone,
True of his word, and thereto well reſound:
Seemly in perſon, and like to Homer, as one
In worldly prudence, and ever the church in one
Upheld and favour’d*, caſting the proud to ground,
And all that would his royal ſtate confound.
Without the tomb is this inſcription:
Near him is the monument of his queen, daughter of the emperor Wenceſlauſ.
On the left hand is the tomb of Edward I. with this inſcription:
The tomb of Edward III. of copper, gilt, with this epitaph:
Of Engliſh kings here lieth the beauteous flower,
Of all before paſt, and myrror to them ſhall ſue:
A merciful king, of peace conſervator,
The third Edward, &c.
Vid. DART. ii. 44.
Beſides the tomb are theſe wordſ.
Here is ſhown his ſword, eight feet in length, which they ſay he uſed in the conqueſt of France.
His queen’s epitaph:
At a little diſtance, the tomb of Henry V. with this legend:
Near this lies the coffin of Catherine, unburied, and to be opened by any one that pleaſes. On the outſide is this inſcription:
The tomb of Henry III. of braſs, gilt, with this epitaph:
It was this Henry, who, one hundred and ſixty years after Edward the Confeſſor had built this church, took it down, an raiſed an entire new one of beautiful architecture, ſupported by rows of marble columns, and its roof covered with ſheets of lead, a work of fifty years before its completion. It has been much enlarged at the weſt end by the abbots. After the expulſion of the monks, it experienced many changeſ; firſt it had a dean and prebendarieſ; then a biſhop, who, having ſquandred the revenues, reſigned it again to a dean. In a little time, the monks with their abbot were re-inſtated by queen Mary; but, they being ſoon ejected again by authority of parliament, it was converted into a cathedral church; nay into a ſeminary for the church, by queen Elizabeth, who inſtituted there twelve prebendaries, an equal number of invalid ſoldiers, and forty ſcholarſ; who at a proper time are elected into the univerſities, and are thence tranſplanted into the church and ſtate.
Next to be ſeen is the tomb of Eleanor, daughter of Alphonſo king of ſpain, and wife of Edward I. with this inſcription:
The tomb of Elizabeth, daughter of Henry VII.
In the middle of this chapel is the ſhrine of ſt. Edward, the laſt king of the ſaxons. It is compoſed of marble in moſaic: round it runs this inſcription in letters of gold:
The third choir, of ſurpriſing ſplendor and elegance, was added to the eaſt end by Henry VII. for a burying place for himſelf and his poſterity. Here is to be ſeen his magnificent tomb, wrought of braſs and marble, with this epitaph:
Here lies Henry VII. of that name, formerly king of England, ſon of Edmund earl of Richmond, who aſcending the throne on the twenty-ſecond day of Auguſt, was crowned on the thirtieth of October following at Weſtminſter, in the year of our Lord 1485. He died on the twenty-firſt of April, in the fifty third year of his age, after a reign of twenty two years, and eight months, wanting a day.
This monument is encloſed with rails of braſs, with a long epitaph in Latin verſe.17
Under the ſame tomb lies buried Edward VI. king of England, ſon of Henry VIII. by Jane ſeymour. He ſucceeded to his father when he was but nine years old, and died A. D. 1553, on the ſixth of July, in the ſixteenth year of his age, and of his reign the ſeventh, not without ſuſpicion of poiſon.
Mary was proclaimed queen by the people, on the nineteenth of July, and died in November, 1558, the nineteenth of July, and died in November, 1558, and is buried in ſome corner of the ſame choir, without any inſcription.
Here lies queen Elizabeth, daughter of Edward IV, ſiſter of king Edward V. wife of Henry VII. and the glorious mother of Henry VIII. ſhe died In the Tower of London, on the eleventh of February, A. D. 1502, in the thirty-ſeventh year of her age.
Between the ſecond and third choirs, in the ſide-chapels,. are the tombs of ſebert king of the Eaſt-ſaxons, who built this church with ſtone: and
Of Margaret of Richmond, mother of Henry VII. grandmother of Henry VIII. She gave this monaſtery to the monks of Winbourne‡, who preached 18 and taught grammar all England over, and appointed ſalaries to two profeſſors of divinity, one at Oxford, another at Cambridge, where ſhe founded two colleges, to Chriſt, and to John his diſciple. She died A. D. 1463, on the third of the calends of July.
And of Margaret counteſs of Lenox, grandmother of James VI. king of ſcotland.
William of Valance, half brother of Henry III.
The earl of Cornwall, brother of Edward III.
Upon another tomb is an honorary inſcription for Frances, dutcheſs of ſuffolk: the ſenſe of it is,
That title, royal birth, riches, or a large family,
are of no avail:
That all are tranſitory; virtue alone reſiſting the
That this lady was firſt married to a duke, then to
ſtoke, a gentleman;
And laſtly, by the grave eſpouſed to CHRIST./P>
Then next is the tomb of lord Ruſſel, ſon of the earl of Bedford, whoſe lady compoſed the following Greek and Latin verſes, and had them engraved on the marble:
How was I ſtartled at the cruel feaſt,
By death’s rude hands in horrid manner dreſt;
ſuch grief as ſure no hapleſs woman knew,
When thy pale image lay before my view.
19 Thy father’s heir in beauteous form array’d
Like flowers in ſpring, and fair, like them to fade;
Leaving behind unhappy wretched me,
And all thy little orphan-progeny:
Alike the beauteous face, the comly air,
The tongue perſuaſive, and the actions fair,
Decay: ſo learning too in time ſhall waſte:
But faith, chaſte lovely faith, ſhall ever laſt.
The once bright glory of his houſe, the pride
Of all his country, duſty ruins hide:
Mourn, hapleſs orphanſ; mourn, once happy wife;
For when he dy’d, dy’d all the joys of life.
Pious and juſt, amidſt a large eſtate,
He got at once the name of good and great.
He made no flatt’ring paraſite his gueſt,
But aſk’d the good companions to the feaſt.
Anne counteſs of Oxford, daughter of William Cecil, baron Burleigh, and lord treaſurer.
Philippa, daughter and coheireſs of John lord Mohun of Dunſter, wife of Edward duke of York.
Frances counteſs of ſuſſex, of the antient family of ſidney.
Thomas Bromley, chancellor to queen Elizabeth.
The earl of Bridgewater§, lord Dawbney, lord chamberlain to Henry VII. and his lady.
And thus much for WESTMINSTER.20
There are many other churches in this city, but none ſo remarkable for the tombs of perſons of diſtinction.
Near to this church is Weſtminſter-hall, where, beſides the ſeſſions of parliament, which are often held there, are the courts of juſtice; and at ſtated times are heard their trials in law, or concerning the king’s patrimony; or in chancery, which moderates the ſeverity of the common law by equity. Till the time of Henry I. the prime court of juſtice was moveable, and followed the King’s court, but he enacted, by the Magna Charta, that the Common Pleas ſhould not longer attend his court, but be held at ſome determined place. The preſent hall was built by king Richard II. in the place of an ancient one which he cauſed to be taken down. He made it part of his habitation (for at that time the kings of England determined cauſes in their own proper perſon, and from the days of Edward the Confeſſor, had their palace adjoining); till, above ſixty years ſince, upon its being burnt, Henry VIII. removed the royal reſidence to Whitehall, ſituated in the neighbourhood, which a little before was the houſe of Cardinal Wolſey: this palace is truly royal; encloſed on one ſide by the Thames, on the other by a park, which connects it with ſt. Jameſ’s, another royal palace.
In the chamber where the parliament is uſually held, the ſeats and wainſcot are made of wood, 21 the growth of Ireland; ſaid to have that occult quality, that all poiſonous animals are driven away by it: and it is affirmed for certain, that in Ireland there are neither ſerpents, toads, nor any other venomous creature to be found.
Near this palace are ſeen an immenſe number of ſwans, who wander up and down the river for ſome miles, in great ſecurity; no body daring to moleſt, much leſs kill any of them, under penalty of a conſiderable fine.
In Whitehall are the following things worthy of obſervation:
I. The royal library, well ſtored with Greek, Latin, Italian and French bookſ: amongſt the reſt, a little one in French, upon parchment, in the hand writing of the preſent reigning queen Elizabeth, thus inſcribed:
All theſe books are bound in velvet of different colours, though chiefly red, with claſps of gold and ſilver; ſome have pearls, and precious ſtones, ſet in their bindingſ.22
II. Two little ſilver cabinets of exquiſite work, in which the queen keeps her paper, and which ſhe uſes for writing boxeſ.
III. The queen’s bed, ingeniouſly compoſed of woods of different colours, with quilts of ſilk, velvet, gold, ſilver, and embroidery.
IV. A little cheſt ornamented all over with pearls, in which the queen keeps her bracelets, ear-rings, and other things of extraordinary value.
V. Chriſt’s paſſion, in painted glaſſ.
VI. Portraitſ: among which are, queen Elizabeth; at ſixteen years old; Henry, Richard, Edward, kings of England; Roſamond; Lucrece, a Grecian bride, in her nuptial habit; the genealogy of the kings of England; a picture of king Edward VI. repreſenting at firſt ſight ſomething quite deformed, till by looking through a ſmall hole in the cover, which is put over it, you ſee it in its true proportionſ; Charles V. emperor; Charles Emanuel duke of ſovoy, and Catherine of ſpain, his wife; Ferdinand duke of Florence, with his daughterſ; one of Philip king of ſpain, when he came into England and married Mary; Henry VII.; Henry VIII. and his mother: beſides many more of illuſtrious men and women; and a picture of the ſiege of Malta.
VII. A ſmall hermitage, half hid in a rock, finely carved in wood.23
VIII. Variety of emblems, on paper, cut in the ſhape of ſhields, with mottoes, uſed by the nobility at tilts and tournaments, hung up here for a memorial.
IX. Different inſtruments of muſic, upon one of which two perſons may perform at the ſame time.
X. A piece of clock work, an Ethiop riding upon a Rhinoceros, with four attendants, who all make their obeiſance, when it ſtrikes the hour; theſe are all put into motion by winding up the machine.
At the entrance into the park from Whitehall is this inſcription:
In this park is great plenty of deer.
In a garden joining to this palace, there is a jet d’eau, with a ſun dial, which while ſtrangers are looking at, a quantity of water, forced by a wheel, which the gardener turns at a diſtance, through a number of little pipes, plentifully ſprinkles thoſe that are ſtanding round.
Guild-hall, a fine ſtructure, built by Thomas Knowleſ: here are to be ſeen the ſtatues of two giants, ſaid to have aſſiſted the Engliſh when the Romans made war upon them; Corinius of Britain, and Gogmagog of Albion. Beneath upon a table the titles of Charles V. emperor, are written in letters of gold.
The government of London is thiſ: the city is divided into twenty-five regions, or wardſ; the council is compoſed of twenty four aldermen, one of which preſides over every ward. And whereas of old, the chief magiſtrate was a portreve, i. e. governor of the city: Richard I. appointed two bailiffſ; inſtead of which king John gave a power by grant, of chuſing annually a mayor, from any of the twelve principal companies, and to name two ſheriffs, one of which to be called the king’s, the other, the city’s. It is ſcarce credible how this city increaſed, both in public and private buildings, upon eſtabliſhing this form of government. Vide Cambden’s Britan. Middleſex.25
It is worthy of obſervation, that every year upon ſt. Bartholomew’s day, when the fair is held, it is uſual for the mayor, attended by the twelve principal aldermen, to walk in a neighbouring field, dreſſed in his ſcarlet gown, and about his neck a golden chain, to which is hung a golden fleece¥, and beſides, that particular ornament** which diſtinguiſhes the moſt noble order of the garter. During the year of his magiſtracy, he is obliged to live ſo magnificently, that foreigner or native, without any expence, is free, if he can find a chair empty, to dine at his table, were there is always the greateſt plenty. When the mayor goes out of the precincts of the city, a ſcepter, a ſword, and a cap, are borne before him, and he is followed by the principal aldermen in ſcarlet gowns, with gold chainſ; himſelf and they on horſeback: upon their arrival at a place appointed for that purpoſe, where a tent is pitched, the mob begin to wreſtle before them, two at a time; the conquerors receive rewards from the magiſtrates. After this is over, a parcel of live rabits are tuned looſe among the crown, which are purſued by a number of boys, who endeavour to catch them, with all the noiſe they can make. while we were at this ſhow, one of our 26 company, Tobias ſalander, doctor of phyſic, had his pocket picked of his purſe, with nine crowns du ſoleil which without doubt was ſo cleverly taken from him, by an Engliſhman, who always kept very cloſe to him, that the doctor did not in the leaſt perceive it.
The Caſtle, or Tower of London, called Bringwin, and Tourgwin, in Welſh, from its whiteneſs, is encompaſſed by a very deep and broad ditch, as well as a double wall very high. In the middle of the whole is that very antient and very ſtrong tower, encloſed with four others, which, in the opinion of ſome, was built by Julius Cæſar. Upon entering the tower, we were obliged to quit our ſwords at the gate, and deliver them to the guard. When we were introduced, we were ſhewn above a hundred pieces of arras belonging to the crown, made of gold, ſilver, and ſilk; ſeveral ſaddles covered with velvet of different colourſ; an immenſe quantity of bed-furniture, ſuch as canopies, and the like, ſome of them moſt richly ornamented with pearl; ſome royal dreſſes, ſo extremely magnificent, as to raiſe any one’s admiration at the ſums they muſt have coſt. We were next led into the armoury, in which are theſe particularitieſ: ſpears, out of which you may ſhoot; ſhields, that will give fire four timeſ; a great many rich halberds, commonly called partuiſans, with which the guard defend the royal perſon in battle; ſome lances, covered with red and green velvet, and the body-armour of 27 Henry VIII.; many, and very beautiful arms, as well for men, as for horſes in horſe-fightſ; the lance of Charles Brandon duke of ſuffolk, three ſpans thick; two pieces of cannon, the one fires three, the other ſeven balls at a time; two others made of wood, which the Engliſh had at the ſiege of Boulogne, in France. And by this ſtratagem, without which they could not have ſucceeded, they ſtruck a terror into the inhabitants, as at the appearance of artillery, and the town was ſurrendered upon articleſ; nineteen cannon, of a thicker make than ordinary; and in a room apart; thirty-ſix of a ſmaller; other cannon for chain-ſhot; and balls proper to bring down maſts of ſhips. Croſſ-bows, bows and arrows, of which to this day the Engliſh make great uſe in their exerciſeſ: but who can relate all that is to be ſeen here? Eight or nine men, employed by the year, are ſcarce ſufficient to keep all the arms bright.
The mint for coining money is in the tower.
N. B. It is to be noted, that when any of the nobility are ſent hither, on the charge of high crimes, puniſhable with death, ſuch as treaſon, &c. they ſeldom or never recover their liberty. Here was beheaded Anna Bolen, wife of king Henry VIII. and lies buried in the chapel, but without any inſcription: and queen Elizabeth was kept priſoner here by her ſiſter queen Mary, at whoſe death ſhe was enlarged, and by right called to the throne.28
On coming out of the tower, we were led to a ſmall houſe cloſe by, where are kept a variety of creatures, viz. three lioneſſes, one lion of great ſize, called Edward VI. from his having been born in that reign; a tyger; a lynx; a wolf exceſſively old; this is a very ſcarce animal in England, ſo that their ſheep and cattle ſtray about in great numbers, free from any danger, though without any body to keep them; there is beſides, a porcupine, and an eagle. All theſe creatures are kept in a remote place, fitted up for the purpoſe with wooden lattices at the queen’s expence.
Next to this tower, is a large open ſpace: on the higheſt part of it is erected a wooden ſcaffold, for the execution of noble criminalſ; upon which they ſay, three princes of England, the laſt of their families, have been beheaded for high treaſon; on the bank of the Thames cloſe by, are a great many cannon, ſuch chiefly as are uſed at ſea.
The next thing worthy of note, is the Royal Exchange, ſo named by queen Elizabeth, built by ſir Thomas Greſham, citizen, for public ornament, and the convenience of merchants. It has a great effect, whether you conſider the ſtatelineſs of the building, the aſſemblage of different nations, or the quantities of merchandiſe. I ſhall ſay nothing of the hall belonging to the Hans ſociety; or of the conveyance of water to all parts of the town by ſubterraneous pipes, nor the beautiful conduits 29 and ciſterns for the reception of it; nor of the riſing of water out of the Thames by a wheel, invented a few years ſince by a German.
Bridewell, at preſent the houſe of correction: it was built in ſix weeks for the reception of the emperor Charles V.
A Hall, built by a cobler, and beſtowed on the city, where are expoſed to ſale three times in a week, corn, wool, cloth, fruits, and the like.
Without the city are ſome Theatres, where Engliſh actors repreſent almoſt every day tragedies and comedies to very numerous audienceſ; theſe are concluded with excellent muſic, variety of dancers, and the exceſſive applauſe of thoſe that are preſent.
Not far from one of theſe theatres, which are all built of wood, lies the royal barge, cloſe to the river; it has two ſplendid cabins, beautifully ornamented with glaſs windows, painting and gilding; it is kept upon dry ground, and ſheltered from the weather.
There is ſtill another place, built in the form of a theatre, which ſerves for the baiting of bulls and bearſ; they are faſtened behind, and then worried by great Engliſh bull-dogs, but not without great riſque to the dogs, from the horns of the one, and the teeth of the other; and it ſometimes happens 30 they are killed upon the ſpot; freſh ones are immediately ſupplied in the places of thoſe that are wounded, or tired. To this entertainment, there often follows that of whipping a blinded bear, which is performed by five or ſix men, ſtanding circularly with whips, which they exerciſe upon him without any mercy, as he cannot eſcape from them becauſe of his chain; he defends himſelf with all his force and ſkill, throwing down all who come within his reach, and are not active enough to get out of it, and tearing the whips out of their hands, and breaking them. At theſe ſpectacles, and every where elſe, the Engliſh are conſtantly ſmoaking tobacco; and in this manner; they have pipes on purpoſe made of clay, into the farther end of which they put the herb, ſo dry that it may be rubbed into powder, and putting fire to it, they draw the ſmoak into their mouths, which they puff out again, through their noſtrils, like funnels, along with it plenty of phlegm and defluxion from the head. In theſe theatres, fruits, ſuch as apples, pears and nuts, according to the ſeaſon, are carried about to be ſold, as well as ale and wine.
There are fifteen colleges, within and without the city, nobly built, with beautiful gardens adjoining. Of theſe the three principal are:
I. The Temple; inhabited formerly by the Knights Templarſ: it ſeems to have taken its name from the old temple, or church, which has a round 31 tower added to it, under which lie buried thoſe kings of Denmark, that reigned in England.
II. Gray’s Inn. And,
III. Lincoln’s Inn.
In theſe colleges numbers of the young nobility, gentry, and others, are educated, and chiefly in the ſtudy of phyſic, for very few apply themſelves to that of the law: they are allowed a very good table, and ſilver cups to drink out of. Once a perſon of diſtinction, who could not help being ſurpriſed at the great number of cups, ſaid, “He ſhould have thought it more ſuitable to the life of ſtudents, if they had uſed rather glaſs, or earthen-ware, than ſilver.” The college anſwered, “They were ready to make him a preſent of all their plate, provided he would undertake to ſupply them with all the glaſs, and earthen-ware, they ſhould have a demand for; ſince it was very likely he would find the expence, from conſtant breaking, exceed the value of the ſilver.”
The ſtreets in this city are very handſome and clean; but that which is named from the goldſmiths who inhabit it, ſurpaſſes all the reſt: there is in it a gilt tower, with a fountain that plays. Near it, on the farther ſide, is a handſome houſe, built by a goldſmith, and preſented by him to the city. There are beſides to be ſeen in this ſtreet, as in all others 32 where there are goldſmithſ’ ſhops, all ſorts of gold and ſilver veſſels expoſed to ſale; as well as ancient and modern medals, in ſuch quantities as muſt ſurprize a man the firſt time he ſees and conſiders them.
Fitz-ſtephens, a writer of Engliſh hiſtory, reckoned in his time in London, one hundred and twenty-ſeven pariſh churches, and thirteen belonging to conventſ: he mentions beſides, that upon a review there of men able to bear arms, the people brought into the field under their colours, forty thouſand foot, and twenty thouſand horſe. Vide Cambden’s Britan. Middleſex.
The beſt oyſters are ſold here in great quantitieſ.
Every body knows that Engliſh cloth is much approved of, for the goodneſs of the materials, and imported into all the kingdoms and provinces of Europe.
We were ſhewn, at the houſe of Leonard ſmith, a taylor, a moſt perfect looking-glaſs, ornamented with gold, pearl, ſilver, velvet, ſo richly as to be eſtimated at five hundred ecus du ſoleil. We ſaw at the ſame place the hippocamp and eagle ſtone, both very curious and rare.
And thus much of LONDON.33
Upon taking the air down the river, the firſt thing that ſtruck us, was the ſhip of that noble pirate, ſir Francis Drake, in which he is ſaid to have ſurrounded this globe of earth. On the left hand lies Ratcliffe, a conſiderable ſuburb: on the oppoſite ſhore is fixed a long pole with ramſ-horns upon it, the intention of which was vulgarly ſaid to be, a reflection upon wilful and contented cuckoldſ.
We arrived next at the royal palace of Greenwich, reported to have been originally built by Humphrey duke of Glouceſter, and to have received very magnificent additions from Henry VII. It was here Elizabeth, the preſent queen, was born, and here ſhe generally reſideſ; particularly in ſummer, for the delightfulneſs of its ſituation. We were admitted by an order Mr. Rogers had procured from the lord chamberlain, into the preſence-chamber, hung with rich tapeſtry, and the floor after the Engliſh faſhion, ſtrewed with†† hay, through which the queen commonly paſſes in her way to chapel: at the door ſtood a gentleman dreſſed in velvet, with a gold chain, whoſe office was to introduce to the queen any perſon of diſtinction, that came to wait on her: it was ſunday, when there is uſually the greateſt attendance of nobility. In the ſame hall were the archbiſhop of Canterbury, the biſhop of London, a great number of counſellors of ſtate, officers 34 of the crown, and gentlemen, who waited the queen’s coming out; which ſhe did from her own apartment, when it was time to go to prayers, attended in the following manner:
Firſt went gentlemen, barons, earls, knights of the garter, all richly dreſſed and bareheaded; next came the chancellor, bearing the ſeals in a red-ſilk purſe, between two; one of which carried the royal ſcepter, the other the ſword of ſtate, in a red ſcabbard; ſtudded with golden fleurs de lis, the point upwardſ: next came the queen, in the ſixty-ſixth year of her age, as we were told, very majeſtic; her face oblong, fair, but wrinkled; her eyes ſmall, yet black and pleaſant; her noſe a little hooked; her lips narrow, and her teeth black; (a defect the Engliſh ſeem ſubject to, from their too great uſe of ſugar) ſhe had in her ears two pearls, with very rich dropſ; ſhe wore falſe hair, and that red; upon her head ſhe had a ſmall crown, reported to be made of ſome of the gold of the celebrated Lunebourg table‡‡: her boſom was uncovered, as all the Engliſh ladies have it, till they marry; and ſhe had on a necklace of exceeding fine jewelſ; her hands were ſmall, her fingers long, and her ſtature neither tall now low; her air was ſtately, her manner of ſpeaking mild and obliging. That day ſhe was dreſſed in white ſilk, bordered with pearls of the ſize of beans, and over it a mantle of 35 black ſilk, ſhot with ſilver threadſ; her train was very long, the end of it borne by a marchioneſſ; inſtead of a chain, ſhe had an oblong collar of gold and jewels. As ſhe went along in all this ſtate and magnificence, ſhe ſpoke very graciouſly, firſt to one, then to another, whether foreign miniſters, or thoſe who attended for different reaſons, in Engliſh, French, and Italian; for, beſides being well ſkilled in Greek, Latin, and the languages I have mentioned, ſhe is miſtreſs of ſpaniſh, ſcotch and Dutch: whoever ſpeaks to her, it is kneeling, now and then ſhe raiſes ſome with her hand. While we were there, W. ſlawata, a Bohemian baron, had letters to preſent to her; and ſhe, after pulling off her glove, gave him her right hand to kiſs, ſparkling with rings and jewels, a mark of particular favour: wherever ſhe turned her face, as ſhe was going along, every body fell down on§§ their knees. The ladies of the court followed next to her, very handſome and well ſhaped, and for the moſt part dreſſed in white; ſhe was guarded on each ſide by the gentlemen penſioners, fifty in number, with gilt battle-axes. In the antichapel next the hall where we were, petitions were preſented to her, and ſhe received 36 them moſt graciouſly, which occaſioned the acclamation of, LONG LIVE QUEEN ELIZABETH! ſhe anſwered it with, I THANK YOU MY GOOD PEOPLE. In the chapel was excellent muſic; as ſoon as it, and the ſervice was over, which ſcarce exceeded half an hour, the queen returned in the ſame ſtate and order, and prepared to go to dinner. But while ſhe was ſtill at prayers, we ſaw her table ſet out with the following ſolemnity:
A gentleman entered the room bearing a rod, and along with him another who had a table-cloth, which, after they had both kneeled three times with the utmoſt veneration, he ſpread upon the table, and after kneeling again, they both retired. Then came two others, one with the rod again, the other with a ſalt-ſeller, a plate and bread; when they had kneeled, as the others had done, and placed what was brought upon the table, they too retired with the ſame ceremonies performed by the firſt. At laſt came an unmarried lady (we were told ſhe was a counteſſ) and along with her a married one, bearing a taſting-knife; the former was dreſſed in white ſilk, who, when ſhe had proſtrated herſelf three times in the moſt graceful manner, approached the table, and rubbed the plates with bread and ſalt, with as much awe, as if the queen had been preſent: when they had waited there a little while, the yeomen of the guards entered, bareheaded, clothed in ſcarlet, with a golden roſe upon their backs, bringing in at each turn a courſe of twenty-four 37 diſhes, ſerved in plate, moſt of it gilt; theſe diſhes were received by a gentleman in the ſame order they were brought, and placed upon the table, while the lady-taſter gave to each of the guard a mouthful to eat, of the particular diſh he had brought for fear of any poiſon. During the time that this guard, which conſiſts of the talleſt and ſtouteſt men that can be found in all England, being carefully ſelected for this ſervice, were bringing dinner, twelve trumpets and two kettle-drums made the hall ring for half an hour together. At the end of all this ceremonial a number of unmarried ladies appeared, who, with particular ſolemnity, lifted the meat off the table, and conveyed it into the queen’s inner and more private chamber, where, after ſhe had choſen for herſelf, the reſt goes to the ladies of the court.
The queen dines and ſups alone with very few attendantſ; and it is very ſeldom that any body, foreigner or native, is admitted at that time, and then only at the interceſſion of ſomebody in power.
Near this palace is the queen’s park, ſtocked with deer: ſuch parks are common throughout England, belonging to thoſe that are diſtinguiſhed either for their rank or riches. In the middle of this is an old ſquare tower, called Mirefleur, ſuppoſed to be that mentioned in the romance of Amadis de Gaul; and joining to it a plain, where knights and other 38 gentlemen uſe to meet, at ſet times and holidays, to exerciſe on horſeback.
We left London in a coach, in order to ſee the remarkable places in its neighbourhood.
The firſt was Theobalds, belonging to lord Burleigh the treaſurer: in the gallery was painted the genealogy of the kings of England; from this place one goes into the garden, encompaſſed with a ditch full of water, large enough for one to have the pleaſure of going in a boat, and rowing between the ſhrubſ; here are great variety of trees and plantſ; labyrinths made with a great deal of labour; a jet d’eau, with its baſon of white marble; and columns and pyramids of wood and other materials up and down the garden. After ſeeing theſe, we were led by the gardener into the ſummer-houſe, in the lower part of which, built ſemicircularly, are the twelve Roman emperors in white marble, and a table of touchſtone; the upper part of it is ſet round with ciſterns of lead, into which the water is conveyed through pipes, ſo that fiſh may be kept in them, and in ſummer time they are very convenient for bathing; in another room for entertainment very near this, and joined to it by a little bridge, was an oval table of red marble. We were not admitted to ſee the apartments of this palace, there being nobody to ſhew it, as the family was in town attending the funeral of their lord¶¶.39
Hodſdon, a village.
Ware, a market town.
Puckeridge, a village; this was the firſt place where we obſerved that the beds at inns were made by the waiterſ.
Camboritum, Cantabrigium, and Cantabrigia, now called Cambridge, a celebrated town, ſo named from the river Cam, which after waſhing the weſtern ſide, playing through iſlands, turns to the eaſt, and divides the town into two parts, which are joined by a bridge; whence its modern name: formerly it had the ſaxon one of Grantbridge. Beyond this bridge is an antient and large caſtle, ſaid to be built by the Daneſ: on this ſide, where far the greater part of the town ſtands, all is ſplendid; the ſtreets fine, the churches numerous, and thoſe ſeats of the Muſes, the colleges, moſt beautiful; in theſe a great number of learned men are ſupported, and the ſtudies of all polite ſciences and languages flouriſh.
I think proper to mention ſome few things about the foundation of this Univerſity, and its colleges. Cantaber, a ſpaniard, is thought to have firſt inſtituted this academy, 375 years before Chriſt; and ſebert king of the Eaſt-Angles, to have reſtored it, A. D. 630. It was afterwards ſubverted in the confuſion under the Danes, and lay long neglected; 40 till upon the Norman conqueſt every thing began to brighten up again: from that time, inns and halls for the convenient lodging of ſtudents began to be built, but without any revenues annexed to them.
The firſt college; called Peter-Houſe, was built and endowed by Hugh Balſ[f?]am, biſhop of Ely, A. D. 1280; and in imitation of him, Richard Badew, with the aſſiſtance of Elizabeth Burk, counteſs of Clare and Ulſter, founded Clare Hall, in 1326; Mary de ſt. Paul counteſs of Pembroke, Pembroke Hall, in 1343; the Monks of Corpus Chriſti, the college of the ſame name, though it has beſides that of Bennet; John Craudene, Trinity Hall, 1354; Edmond Gonville in 1348, and John Caius, a phyſician in our times, Gonville and Caius college; king Henry VI. King’s College, in 1441; adding to it a chapel, that may juſtly claim a place among the moſt beautiful buildings in the world; on its right ſide is a fine library, where we ſaw the Book of Pſalms in manuſcript upon parchment, four ſpans in length, and three broad, taken from the ſpaniards at the ſiege of Cadiz, and thence brought into England with other rich ſpoils. Margaret of Anjou, his wife, founded Queen’s College, 1448, at the ſame time that John Alcock, biſhop of Ely, built Jeſus College; Robert Woodlarke, Catherine Hall; Margaret of Richmond, mother of king Henry VII. Chriſt’s and ſt. John’s Colleges, about 1506; Thomas Audley, chancellor of England, Magdalen College, much increaſed ſince 41 both in buildings and revenue by Chriſtopher Wray, lord chief juſtice; and the moſt potent king Henry VIII. erected Trinity College for religion and polite letterſ; in this chapel is the tomb of Dr. Whitacre, with an inſcription in gold letter upon marble; Emanuel College built in our own times by the moſt honourable and prudent ſir Walter Mildmay, one of her majeſty’s privy council: and laſtly, ſidney College, now firſt building by the executors of the lady¥¥ Frances ſidney, counteſs of ſuſſex.
We muſt note here, that there is a certain ſect in England, called Puritanſ: theſe, according to the doctrine of the church of Geneva, eject all ceremonies antiently held, and admit of neither organs nor tombs in their places of worſhip, and entirely abhor all difference in rank among churchmen, ſuch as biſhops, deans, &c. they were firſt named Puritans by the Jeſuit ſandys. They do not live ſeparate, but mix with thoſe of the church of England in the collegeſ.
Potton, a village.
Ampthill, a town; here we ſaw immenſe numbers of rabbits, which are reckoned as good as hares, and are very well taſted.42
We paſſed through the towns of Woburn, Leighton, Aileſbury, and Wheatley.
Oxonium, Oxford, the famed Athens of England; that glorious ſeminary of learning and wiſdom, whence religion, politeneſs, and letters, are abundantly diſperſed into all parts of the kingdom: the town is remarkably fine, whether you conſider the elegance of its private buildings, the magnificence of its public ones, or the beauty and wholeſomeneſs of its ſituation; which is on a plain, encompaſſed in ſuch a manner with hills ſhaded with wood, as to be ſheltered on the one hand from the ſickly ſouth, and on the other from the bluſtering weſt, but open to the eaſt that blows ſerene weather, and to the north the preventer of corruption; from which, in the opinion of ſome, it formerly obtained the appellation of Belloſitum. This own is watered by two rivers, the Cherwell, and the Iſis, vulgarly called the Ouſe; and though theſe ſtreams join in the ſame channel, yet the Iſis runs more entire, and with more rapidity towards the ſouth, retaining its name, till it meets the Thameſ, which it ſeems long to have ſought, at Wallingford; thence called by the compound name of Thames, it flows the prince of all Britiſh riverſ; of whom we may juſtly ſay, as the antients did of the Euphrates, that it both ſows and waters England.
The colleges in this famous Univerſity are as follow:43
In the reign of Henry III. Walter Merton, biſhop of Rocheſter, removed the college he had founded in ſurrey, 1274, to Oxford, enriched it, and named it Merton College; and ſoon after William archdeacon of Durham, reſtored with additions that building of Alfred’s, now called Univerſity College; in the reign of Edward I. John Baliol, king of ſcotland, or as ſome will have it, his parents, founded Baliol College; in the reign of Edward II. Walter ſtapleton, biſhop of Exeter, founded Exeter College, and Hart Hall: and, in imitation of him, the king, King’s College, commonly called Oriel; and ſt. Mary’s Hall; next Philippa, wife of Edward III. built Queen’s College; and ſimon Iſlip archbiſhop of Canterbury, Canterbury College; William Wickham, biſhop of Wincheſter, raiſed that magnificent ſtructure, called New College; Magdalen College was built by William Wainflet, biſhop of Wincheſter, a noble edifice, finely ſituated, and delightful for its walkſ: at the ſame time Humphrey duke of Glouceſter, that great encourager of learning, built the divinity ſchool very ſplendidly, and over it a library, to which he gave an hundred and twenty-nine very choice books, purchaſed at a great price from Italy, but the public has long ſince been robbed of the uſe of them by the avarice of particularſ: Lincoln College; All-ſouls College; ſt. Bernardſ’ College; Brazen-Noſe College, founded by William ſmith, biſhop of Lincoln, in the reign of Henry VII. its revenues were augmented by Alexander Nowel, dean of ſt. Paul’s, London; 44 upon the gate of this college is fixed a noſe of braſſ: Corpus Chriſti College built by Richard Fox biſhop of Wincheſter: under his picture in the college chapel are lines importing that it is the exact repreſentation of his perſon and body.
Chriſt’s Church, the larges and moſt elegant of them all, was begun on the ground of ſt. Frideſwide’s Monaſtery, by Thomas Wolſey, cardinal of York; to which Henry VIII. joined Canterbury College, ſettled great revenues upon it, and named it Chriſt’s Church: the ſame great prince, out of his own treaſury, to the dignity of the town, and ornament of the univerſity, made the one a biſhoprick, and inſtituted profeſſorſhips in the other.
Jeſus College, built by Hugh Price Doctor of Lawſ.
That fine edifice, the public ſchools, was entirely raiſed by queen Mary, and adorned with various inſcriptionſ.
Thus far of the colleges and halls, which for the beauty of their buildings, their rich endowments, and copious libraries, excell all the academies in the chriſtian world. We ſhall add a little of the academies themſelves, and thoſe that inhabit them.
Thſee ſtudents lead a life almoſt monaſtic; for as the Monks had nothing in the world to do, but when 45 they had ſaid their prayers at ſtated hours, to employ themſelves in inſtructive ſtudies, no more have theſe. They are divided into three tableſ: the firſt is called the fellows table, to which are admitted earls, barons, gentlemen, doctors, and maſters of arts, but very few of the latter; this is more plentifully and extenſively ſerved than the otherſ: the ſecond is for maſters of arts, bachelors, ſome gentlemen, and eminent citizenſ: the third for people of low condition. While the reſt are at dinner or ſupper in a great hall, where they are all aſſembled, one of the ſtudents reads aloud the bible, which is placed on a deſk in the middle of the hall, and this office every one of them takes upon himſelf in his turn; as ſoon as grace is ſaid after each meal, every one is at liberty, either to retire to his own chambers, or to walk in the college garden, there being none that has not a delightful one. Their habit is almoſt the ſame as that of the jeſuits, their gowns reaching down to their ankles, ſometimes lined with fur; they wear ſquare capſ; the doctors, maſters of arts, and profeſſors, have another kind of gown that diſtinguiſhes them: every ſtudent of any conſiderable ſtanding has a key to the college library, for no college is without one.
In an out part of the town are the remains of a pretty large fortification, but quite in ruins. We were entertained at ſupper with an excellent concert, compoſed of variety of inſtrumentſ.46
The next day we went as far as the royal palace of Woodſtock, where king Ethelred formerly held a parliament, and enacted certain laws. This palace abounding in magnificence was built by Henry I. to which he joined a very large park, encloſed with a wall, according to John Roſſe the firſt park in England. In this very palace the preſent reigning queen Elizabeth, before ſhe was confined to the tower, was kept priſoner by her ſiſter Mary; while ſhe was detained here in the utmoſt peril of her life, ſhe wrote with a piece of charcoal the following verſes, compoſed by herſelf, upon a window ſhutter:
O Fortune! how thy reſtleſs wavering ſtate
Hath fraught with cares my troubled wit!
Witneſs this preſent priſon whither fate
Hath born me, and the joys I quit.
Thou cauſedeſt the guilty to be looſed
From bands, wherewith are innocents encloſed:
Cauſing the guiltleſs to be ſtrait reſerved,
And freeing thoſe that death had well deſerved:
But by her envy can be nothing wrought,
So God ſend to my foes all they have thought.
A. D. M.D.I.V.
Not far from this palace are to be ſeen near a ſpring of the brighteſt water the ruins of the habitation of Roſamond Clifford, whoſe exquiſite beauty ſo entirely captivated the heart of King Henry II. 47 that he left the thought of all other women; ſhe is ſaid to have been poiſoned by the queen. All that remains of her tomb of ſtone, the letters of which are almoſt worn out, is the following:
The rhiming epitaph following, was probably the performance of ſome monk:
Returning from hence to Oxford, after dinner we proceeded on our journey, and paſſed through Ewhelme, a royal palace, in which ſome almſ-people are ſupported by an allowance from the crown.
Nettlebed, a village.
We went through the little town of Henley; from hence the Chiltern hills bear north in a continued ridge, and divide the counties of Oxford and Buckingham.
We paſſed Maidenhead.
Windſor, a royal caſtle, ſuppoſed to have been begun by king Arthur, its buildings much increaſed 48 by Edward III. The ſituation is entirely worthy of being a royal reſidence, a more beautiful being ſcarce to be found: for, from the brow of a gentle riſing, it enjoys the proſpect of an even and green country; its front commands a valley extended every way, and chequered with arable lands and paſturage, clothed up and down with groves, and watered by that gentleſt of rivers the Thameſ; behind riſe ſeveral hills, but neither ſteep, nor very high, crowned with woods, and ſeeming deſigned by Nature herſelf for the purpoſes of hunting.
The kings of England, invited by the deliciouſneſs of the place, very often retire hither; and here was born the conqueror of France, the glorious king Edward III., who built the Caſtle new from the ground, and thoroughly fortified it with trenches, and towers of ſquare ſtone, and having ſoon after ſubdued in battle John king of France, and David king of ſcotland, he detained them both priſoners here at the ſame time. This Caſtle, beſides being the royal palace, and having ſome magnificent tombs of the kings of England, is famous for the ceremonies belonging to the Knights of the Garter: this Order was inſtituted by Edward III., the ſame who triumphed ſo illuſtriouſly over John king of France. The Knights of the Garter are ſtrictly choſen for their military virtues, and antiquity of family: They are bound by ſolemn oath and vow to mutual and perpetual friendſhip among themſelves, and to the not avoiding any danger whatever, 49 or even death itſelf, to ſupport, by their joint endeavours, the honor of the ſociety: they are ſtiled, Companions of the Garter, from their wearing below the left knee a purple garter, inſcribed in letters of gold, with HONI SOIT QUI MAL Y PENSE, i. e. Evil to him that evil thinkſ. This they wear upon the left leg, in memory of one which happening to untie, was let fall by a great lady, paſſionately beloved by Edward, while ſhe was dancing, and was immediately ſnatched up by the king; who, to do honour to the lady, not out of any trifling galantry, but with a moſt ſerious and honourable purpoſe, dedicated it the legs of the moſt diſtinguiſhed nobility. The ceremonies of this ſociety are celebrated every year at Windſor on ſt. George’s day, the tutelar ſaint of the Order, the king preſiding; and the cuſtom is, that the Knights Companions ſhould hang up their helmet and ſhield, with their arms blazoned on it, in ſome conſpicuous part of the church.
There are three principal and very large courts in Windſor Caſtle, which give great pleaſure to the beholderſ: the firſt is encloſed with moſt elegant buildings of white ſtone, flat roofed, and covered with lead; here the Knights of the Garter are lodged; in the middle is a detached houſe, remarkable for its high tower, which the governor inhabits. In this is the public kitchen, well furniſhed with proper utenſils, beſides a ſpacious dining-room, where all the poor Knights eat at the ſame table, for 50 into this ſociety of the Garter, the king and ſovereign elects, at his own choice, certain perſons, who muſt be gentlemen of three deſcents, and ſuch as, for their age and the ſtraitneſs of their fortunes, are fitter for ſaying their prayers than for the ſervice of war; to each of them is aſſigned a penſion of eighteen pounds per annum and clotheſ: the chief inſtitution of ſo magnificent a foundation is, that they ſhould ſay their daily prayers to God for the king’s ſafety, and the happy adminiſtration of the kingdom, to which purpoſe they attend the ſervice, meeting twice every day at chapel. The left ſide of this court is ornamented by a moſt magnificent chapel of one hundred and thirty-four paces in length, and ſixteen in breadth; in this are eighteen ſeats fitted up in the time of Edward III. for an equal number of Knightſ: this venerable building is decorated with the noble monuments of Edward IV., Henry VI., and VIII., and of his wife queen Jane. It receives from royal liberality the annual income of two thouſand pounds, and that ſtill much increaſed by the munificence of Edward III. and Henry VII. The greateſt princes in Chriſtendom have taken it for the higheſt honour to be admitted into the Order of the Garter; and ſince its firſt inſtitution about twenty kings, beſides thoſe of England, who are the ſovereigns of it, not to mention dukes and perſons of the greateſt figure, have been of it, It conſiſts of twenty-ſix Companionſ.
In the inward choir of the chapel are hung up 51 ſixteen coats of arms, ſwords, and bannerſ; among which are thoſe of Charles V. and Rodolphus II., Emperorſ; of Philip of ſpain; Henry III. of France; Frederic II. of Denmark, &c.; of Caſimir Count Palatine of the Rhine; and other Chriſtian princes who have been choſen into this Order.
In the back choir, or additional chapel, are ſhewn preparations made by Cardinal Wolſey, who was afterwards capitally puniſhed***, for his own tomb; conſiſting of eight large brazen columns placed round it, and nearer the tomb four others in the ſhape of candleſtickſ; the tomb itſelf is of white and black marble; all which are reſerved, according to report, for the funeral of queen Elizabeth; the expences already made for that purpoſe are eſtimated at upwards of 60,000l. In the ſame chapel is the ſurcoat††† of Edward IIII., and the tomb of Edward Fines Earl of Lincoln, Baron Clinton and ſay, Knight of the moſt noble Order of the Garter, and formerly Lord High Admiral of England.
The ſecond Court of Windſor Caſtle ſtands upon higher ground, and is encloſed with walls of great 52 ſtrength, and beautified with fine buildings and a Tower; it was an antient caſtle, of which old annals ſpeak in this manner: king Edward, A. D. 1359, began a new building in that part of the Caſtle of Windſor where he was born; for which reaſon he took care it ſhould be decorated with larger and finer edifices than the reſt. In this part were kept priſoners John king of France, and David king of ſcots, over whom Edward triumphed at one and the ſame time: it was by their advice, ſtruck with the advantage of its ſituation, and with the ſums paid for their ranſom, that by degrees this Caſtle ſtretched to ſuch magnificence, as to appear no longer a fortreſs, but a town of proper extent, and inexpugnable to any human force; this particular part of the Caſtle was built at the ſole expence of the king of ſcotland, except one tower, which, from its having been erected by the Biſhop of Wincheſter, Prelate of the Order, is called Wincheſter Tower‡‡‡; there are a hundred ſteps to it, ſo ingeniouſly contrived that horſes can eaſily aſcend them; it is an hundred and fifty paces in circuit; within it are preſerved all manner of arms neceſſary for the defence of the place.
The third court is much the largeſt of any, built at the expence of the captive king of France; as it ſtands higher, ſo it greatly excels the two former in ſplendor and elegance; it has one hundred and 53 forty-eight paces in length, and ninety-ſeven in breadth; in the middle of it is a fountain of very clear water, brought under ground, at an exceſſive expence, from the diſtance of four miles. Towards the eaſt are magnificent apartments deſtined for the royal houſehold; towards the weſt is a tenniſ-court for the amuſement of the court; on the north ſide are the royal apartmentſ; conſiſting of magnificent chambers,. halls, and bathing-rooms§§§, and a private chapel, the roof of which is embelliſhed with golden roſes and fleurs de liſ: in this, too, is that very large banqueting-rooms, ſeventy-eight paces long, and thirty wide, in which the knights of the Garter annually celebrate the memory of their tutelar ſaint, ſt. George, with a ſolemn and moſt pompous ſerviceſ.
From hence runs a walk of incredible beauty, three hundred and eighty paces in length, ſet round on every ſide with ſupporters of wood, which ſuſtain a balcony, from whence the nobility and perſons of diſtinction can take the pleaſure of ſeeing hunting and hawking in a lawn of ſufficient ſpace; for the fields and meadows, clad with variety of plants and flowers, ſwell gradually into hills of perpetual verdure quite up to the caſtle, and at bottom ſtretch out in an extended plain, that ſtrikes the beholders with delight.54
Beſides what has been already mentioned, there are worthy of notice here two bathing-rooms, cieled and wainſcoted with looking-glaſſ; the chamber in which Henry VI. was born; queen Elizabeth’s bed-chamber, where is a table of red marble with white ſtreakſ; a gallery every where ornamented with emblems and figureſ; a chamber in which are the royal beds of Henry VII. and his queen, of Edward VI., of Henry VIII., and of Anne Bullen, all of them eleven feet ſquare, and covered with quilts ſhining with gold and ſilver; queen Elizabeth’s bed, with curious coverings of embroidery, but not quite ſo long or large as the otherſ; a piece of tapeſtry, in which is repreſented Clovis, king of France, with an angel preſenting to him the fleurs de lis, to be born in his armſ; for before his time the kings of France bore three toads in their ſhield, inſtead of which they afterwards placed three fleurs de lis on a blue field; this antique tapeſtry is ſaid to have been taken from a king of France, while the Engliſh were maſters there. We were ſhewn here, among other things, the horn of a unicorn, of above eight ſpans and a half in length, valued at above 10,000l!--not italicized in text-->.; the bird of paradiſe, three ſpans long, three fingers broad, having a blue bill of the length of half an inch, the upper part of its head yellow, the nether part of a * * * * colour¶¶¶; a little lower from either ſide of its throat ſtick out 55 ſome rediſh feathers, as well as from its back and the reſt of its body; its wings of a yellow colour are twice as long as the bird itſelf; from its back grow out lengthways two fibres or nerves, bigger at their ends, but like a pretty ſtrong thread, of a leaden colour, inclining to black, with which, as it has no feet, is ſaid to faſten itſelf to trees, when it wants to reſt; a cuſhion moſt curiouſly wrought by queen Elizabeth’s own handſ.
In the precincts of Windſor, on the other ſide the Thames, both whoſe banks are joined by a bridge of wood, is ETON, a well-built College, and famous ſchool for polite letters, founded by Henry VI.; where, beſides a maſter, eight fellow and chanters, ſixty boys are maintained gratis. They are taught grammar, and remain in the ſchool till, upon trial made of their genius and progreſs in ſtudy, they are ſent to the Univerſity of Cambridge.
As we were retuning to our inn, we happened to meet ſome country people celebrating their harveſt-home; their laſt load of corn they crown with flowers, having beſides an image richly dreſſed, by which, perhaps, they would ſignify Cereſ; this they keep moving about, while men and women, men and maid ſervants, riding through the ſtreets in the cart, ſhout as loud as they can till they arrive at the barn. The farmers here do not bind up their corn in ſheaves, as they do with us, but directly as 56 they have reaped or mowed it, put it into carts, and convey it into their barnſ.
We went through the town of ſtaineſ.
Hampton-Court, a royal palace, magnificently built with brick by Cardinal Wolſey in oſtentation of his wealth, where he encloſed five very ample courts, conſiſting of noble edifices in very beautiful work. Over the gate in the ſecond area is the queen’s device, a golden Roſe, with this motto, DIEU ET MON DROIT: on the inward ſide of this gate are the effigies of the twelve Roman emperors in plaſter, the chief area is paved with ſquare ſtone; in its center is a fountain that throws up water, covered with a gilt crown, on the top of which is a ſtatue of Juſtice, ſupported by columns of black and white marble. The chapel of this palace is moſt ſplendid, in which the queen’s cloſet is quite tranſparent, having its window of chryſtal. We were led into two chambers, called the preſence, or chambers of audience, which ſhone with tapeſtry of gold and ſilver and ſilk of different colourſ: under the canopy of ſtate are theſe words embroidered in pearl, Vivat Henricu Octavuſ. Here is beſides a ſmall chapel richly hung with tapeſtry, where the queen performs her devotions. In her bed-chamber the bed was covered with very coſtly coverlids of ſilk; at no great diſtance from this room we were ſhewn a bed, the teaſter of which 57 was worked by Anne Bullen, and preſented by her to her huſband Henry VIII. All the other rooms, being very numerous, are adorned with tapeſtry of gold, ſilver, and velvet, in ſome of which were woven hiſtory pieceſ; in others, Turkiſh and American dreſſes, all extremely natural.
In the hall are theſe curioſitieſ:
A very clear looking-glaſs, ornamented with columns and little images of alabaſter; a portrait of Edward VI., brother to queen Elizabeth; the true portrait of Lucretia; a picture of the battle of Pavia; the hiſtory of Chriſt’s paſſion, carved in mother of pearl; the portraits of Mary queen of ſcots, who was beheaded, and her daughter¥¥¥; the picture of Ferdinand prince of ſpain, and of Philip his ſon; that of Henry VIII., under it was placed the Bible curiouſly written upon parchment; an artificial ſphere; ſeveral muſical inſtrumentſ; in the tapeſtry are repreſented negroes riding upon elephants. The bed in which Edward VI. is ſaid to have been born, and where his mother Jane ſeymour died in child-bed; in one chamber were ſeveral exceſſively rich tapeſtries, which are hung up when the queen gives audience to foreign ambaſſadorſ; there were numbers of cuſhions ornamented with gold and ſilver; many counterpanes and coverlids of beds lined with ermine: in ſhort, all the walls 58 of the palace ſhine with gold and ſilver. Here is beſides a certain cabinet called Paradiſe, where beſides that every thing glitters ſo with ſilver, gold, and jewels, as to dazzle one’s eyes, there is a muſical inſtrument made all of glaſs, except the ſtrings. Afterwards we were led into the gardens, which are moſt pleaſant; here we ſaw roſemary ſo planted and nailed to the walls as to cover them entirely, which is a method exceeding common in England.
Kingſton, a market town.
Noneſuch, a royal retreat, in a place formerly called Cuddington, a very healthful ſituation, choſen by king Henry VIII. for his pleaſure and retirement, and built by him with an exceſs of magnificence and elegance, even to oſtentation: one would imagine every thing that architecture can perform to have been employed in this one work. There are every where ſo many ſtatues that ſeem to breathe ſo many miracles of conſummate art, ſo many caſts that rival even the perfection of Roman antiquity, that it may well claim and juſtify its name of Noneſuch, being without an equal; or as the poet ſung:
The palace itſelf is ſo encompaſſed with parks full of deer, delicious gardens, groves ornamented with trellis work, cabinets of verdure, and walks 59 ſo embrowned by trees, that it ſeems to be a place pitched upon by Pleaſure herſelf, to dwell in along with Health.
In the pleaſure and artificial gardens are many columns and pyramids of marble, two fountains that ſpout water one round the other like a pyramid, upon which are perched ſmall birds that ſtream water out of their bills. In the grove of Diana is a very agreeable fountain, with Actæon turned into a ſtag, as he was ſprinkled by the goddeſs and her nymphs, with inſcriptionſ.
There is beſides another pyramid of marble full of concealed pipes, which ſpirt upon all who come within their reach.
Returned from hence to London.60
* His name was ſir Thomas Falconer.
† This is not true, for her legitimacy was with good reaſon conteſted.
‡ This is a miſtake: her epitaph ſays, ſtipendia conſtituit tribus hoc cœnobio monachis & doctori grammatices apud Wynbourne.
§ Sir Giles Dawbney; he was not earl of Bridgewater, nor a lord.
¶ This romantic inſcription probably alluded to Philip II. who wooed the queen after her ſiſter’s death; and to the deſtruction of his armada.
¥ This probably alluded to the woollen manufacture; ſtow mentions his riding through the Cloth Fair, on the Eve of ſt. Bartholomew, p. 651.
** The collar of ſſ.
†† He probably means ruſheſ.
‡‡ Her father had been treated with the ſame deference. It is mentioned by Fox in his acts and monuments, that when the lord chancellor went to apprehend queen Catherine Parr, he ſpoke to the king on his kneeſ.
King James I. ſuffered his courtiers to omit it.
BACON’s Papers, Vol. II. p. 516.
§§ Lord treaſurer Burleigh died Auguſt 4, 1598.
¶¶ She was the daughter, ſiſter and aunt, of thoſe eminent knights, ſir William, ſir Henry, and ſir Philip ſidney.
¥¥ This was a ſtrange blunder to be made ſo near the time, about ſo remarkable a perſon, unleſs he concluded that whoever diſpleaſed Henry VIII. was of courſe put to death.
*** This is a miſtake; it was the ſurcoat of Edward IV. enriched with rubes, and was preſerved here till the civil war.
††† It is not clear what the author means by hypocauſtiſ; I have tranſlated it bathing-roomſ; it might mean only chambers with ſtoveſ.
‡‡‡ The original is optici; it is impoſſible to gueſs what colour he meant.
§§§ Here are ſeveral miſtakeſ.
* See original version here. It appears that these contractions show that the terminal e of a word, along with the suffix ‘-ed’ were pronounced as separate syllables at the time of the translation, as late as the 18th century. Here apostrophe ’ has been inserted to contract the word to omit this added syllable, to preserve the meter of the poem.61
As to eccleſiaſtical juriſdiction, after the popes had aſſigned a church and pariſh to every prieſt, Honorius, archbiſhop of Canterbury, about the year 636, began to divide England in the ſame manner into pariſheſ: as it has two provinces, ſo it has two archbiſhopſ; the one of Canterbury, primate and metropolitan of all England; the other of York: ſubject to theſe are twenty-five biſhops, viz. twenty-two to Canterbury, the remaining three to York.
The ſoil is fruitful, and abounds with cattle, which inclines the inhabitants rather to feeding than ploughing, ſo that near a third part of the land is left uncultivated for grazing. The climate is moſt temperate at all times, and the air never heavy, conſequently maladies are ſcarcer, and leſs phyſic is uſed there than any where elſe. There are but few riverſ: though the ſoil is productive, it bears no wine; but that want is ſupplied from abroad by the beſt kinds, as of Orleans, Gaſcon, Rheniſh, and ſpaniſh. The general drink is beer, which is prepared from barley, and is excellently well taſted, but ſtrong, and what ſoon fuddles. There are many 63 hills without one tree, or any ſpring, which produce a very ſhort and tender graſs, and ſupply plenty of food to ſheep; upon theſe wander numerous flocks, extremely white, and whether from the temperature of the air, or goodneſs of the earth, bearing ſofter and finer fleeces than thoſe of any other country: this is the true Golden Fleece, in which conſiſts the chief riches of the inhabitants, great ſums of money being brought into the iſland by merchants, chiefly for that article of trade. The dogs here are particularly good. It has mines of gold, ſilver, and tin, (of which all manner of table utenſils are made, in brightneſs equal to ſilver, and uſed all over Europe), of lead, and of iron, but not much of the latter. The horſes are ſmall but ſwift. Glaſſhouſes are in plenty here.
The Engliſh are ſerious, like the Germanſ; lovers of ſhew, liking to be followed wherever they go by whole troops of ſervants, who wear their maſterſ’ arms in ſilver, faſtened to their left arms, a ridicule they deſervedly lay under. They excel in dancing and muſic, for they are active and lively, though of a thicker make than the French; they cut their hair cloſe on the middle of the head, letting it grow on either ſide; they are good ſailors, and better pirates, 64 cunning, treacherous, and thieviſh; above three hundred are ſaid to be hanged annually at London; beheading with them is leſs infamous than hanging; they give the wall as the place of honour; hawking is the general ſport of the gentry; they are more polite in eating than the French, devouring leſs bread, but more meat, which they roaſt in perfection; they put a great deal of ſugar in their drink; their beds are covered with tapeſtry, even thoſe of farmerſ; they are often moleſted with the ſcurvy, ſaid to have firſt crept into England with the Norman conqueſt; their houſes are commonly of two ſtories, except in London, where they are of three and four, though but ſeldom of four; they are built of wood, thoſe of the richer ſort with brickſ; their roofs are low, and, where the owner has money, covered with lead.
They are powerful in the field, ſucceſſful againſt their enemies, impatient of any thing like ſlavery; vaſtly fond of great noiſes that fill the ear, ſuch as the firing of cannon, drums, and the ringing of bells, ſo that it is common for a number of them, that have got a glaſs in their heads, to go up into ſome belfry, and ring the bells for hours together for the ſake of exerciſe. If they ſee a foreigner very well made, or particularly handſome, they will ſay, It is a pity he is not an Engliſhman!65
† THOMAS, Howard &8224;, duke of Norfolk, hereditary marſhal of England: the dutchy is extinct for rebellion, the laſt duke being beheaded.
Grey † duke of ſuffolk, attainted under queen Mary.
Philip Howard, earl of Arundel in his mother’s right, and of ſurry by his father, ſon of the above-mentioned duke of Norfolk, he himſelf condemned for high treaſon, and his titles forfeited.
Edward Vere, earl of Oxford, hereditary chamberlain of England.
Percy, earl of Northumberland, deſcended from the dukes of Brabant.
Charles Nevill† earl of Weſtmoreland, baniſhed into Holland, and deprived of his fortunes and dignities for rebellion.66
Talbot, earl of Shrewſbury.
Grey, earl of Kent, has but a ſmall eſtate.
ſtanley, earl of Derby, and king of Man.
Manners, earl of Rutland.
ſomerſet, earl of Worceſter, deſcended from a baſtard of the ſomerſet family, which itſelf is of the royal family of the Plantagenetſ.
Clifford, earl of Cumberland.
Ratcliff, earl of Suſſex.
Haſtings, earl of Huntingdon, of the line of York, by the mother’s ſide.
Bourchier, earl of Bath.
Ambroſe Sutton†, alias Dudley, earl of Warwick, died a few years ſince childleſſ.
Wriotheſly, earl of Southampton.
Ruſſel, earl of Bedford.
Herbert, earl of Pembroke.
Edward Seymour † earl of Hertford, ſon of the 67 duke of ſomerſet, who was beheaded in the reign of Edward VI.
Robert Sutton† or Dudley, earl of Leiceſter, brother of the earl of Warwick, died a few years ago.
Robert d’Evereux, earl of Eſſex, and of Ewe in Normandy, created hereditary marſhal of England, in 1598.
Charles Howard, of the Norfolk family, created earl of Nottingham 1597, lord high admiral of England, and privy counſellor.
Fieſnes [Qu?], earl of Lincoln.
Brown, viſcount Montacute.
Howard, of the Norfolk family, viſcount Bindon.
Nevill, baron Abergavenny: this Barony is controverted.
Touchet, baron Audley.
Zouch, baron Zouch.
Peregrine Bertie, baron Willoughby of Ereſby and Brooke, governor of Berwick.68
Berkley, baron Berkley, of the antient family of the kings of Denmark.
Parker, baron Morley.
Dacre† baron Dacre of Gylleſland: this barony is vacant.
Dacre† baron Dacre of the ſouth: he died four years ſince, and the barony devolved to his daughter.
Brook, baron Cobham, warden of the cinque portſ.
Stafford, baron Stafford, reduced to want; he is heir to the family of the dukes of Buckingham, who were hereditary conſtables of England.
Gray, baron Gray of Wilton.
Scroop, baron ſcroop of Boulton.
Sutton, baron Dudley.
Stourton, baron ſtourton.
Nevill† baron Latimer, died ſome years ſince without heirs male; the title controverted.
Lumley, baron Lumley.
Blunt, baron Mountjoy.69
Ogle, baron Ogle.
Darcy, baron Darcy.
Parker, baron Montegle, ſon and heir of baron Morley; he has this barony in right of his mother, of the family of Stanley.
Sandys, baron Sandyſ.
Vaux, baron Vaux.
Windſor, baron Windſor.
Wentworth, baron Wentworth.
Borough, baron Borough, reduced to want.
Baron North, privy counſellor, and treaſurer of the houſehold.
Baron Hunſdon, privy counſellor, and lord chamberlain.
Sackville, baron Buckhurſt, privy counſellor.
Thom. Cecil, baron Burleigh, ſon of the treaſurer.70
Cecil, Lord Roos, grandſon of the treaſurer, yet a child: he holds the barony in right of his mother, daughter to the earl of Rutland.
Howard† of Maltravers, ſon of the earl of Arundel, not yet reſtored in blood.
Baron Willoughby of Parham.
Baron Pagett† in exile, attainted.
Baron ſt. John.
Baron Delaware: his anceſtors took the king of France priſoner.
Baron Compton, has ſquandered almoſt all this ſubſtance.
Thomas Howard, ſecond ſon of the duke of Norfolk, baron Audley of ſaffronwalden, in his mother’s right.
William† third ſon of the duke of Norfolk, is neither a baron, nor yet reſtored in blood.
Thus far of NOBLE FAMILIES.71
We ſet out from London in a boat, and fell down the river, leaving Greenwich, which we have ſpoken of before, on the right hand.
Barking, a town in ſight on the left.
Graveſend, a ſmall town, famous for the convenience of its port; the larges Dutch ſhips uſually call here. As we were to proceed farther from hence by water, we took our laſt leave here of the noble Bohemian David ſtrziela, and his tutor Tobias ſalander, our conſtant fellow-travellers through France and England, they deſigning to return home through Holland, we on a ſecond tour into France; but it pleaſed heaven to put a ſtop to their deſign, for the worthy ſtrziela was ſeized with a diarrhea a few days before our departure, and, as we afterwards learned by letters from ſalander, died in a few days of a violent fever in London.
Queenſborough: we left the Caſtle on our right; a little farther we ſaw the fiſhing of oyſters out of the ſea, which are no where in greater plenty or perfection; witneſs Ortelius in his Epitome, &c.
Whitſtable; here we went aſhore.
Canterbury; we came to it on foot; this is the ſeat of the archbiſhop, primate of all England, a very antient town, and, without doubt, of note in the time of the Romanſ.72
Here are two monaſteries almoſt contiguous, namely of Chriſt and ſt. Auguſtine, both of them once filled with Benedictine Monkſ: the former were afterwards dedicated to ſt. Thomas Becket, the name of Chriſt being obliterated; it ſtands almoſt in the middle of the town, and with ſo much majeſty lifts itſelf, and its two towers, to a ſtupendous height, that, as Eraſmus ſays, it ſtrikes even thoſe, who only ſee it at a diſtance, with awe.
In the choir, which is ſhut up with iron rails, are the following monumentſ;
King Henry IV., with his wife Joan of Navarre, of white marble.
Nicholas Wootton, privy counſellor to Henry VIII., Edward VI., Mary, and Elizabeth, kings and queens of England.
Of prince Edward, duke of Aquitain and Cornwall, and earl of Cheſter.
Reginald Pole, with this inſcription:
We were then ſhewn the chair in which the biſhops are placed when they are inſtalled. In the 73 veſtibule of the church, on the ſouth ſide, ſtand the ſtatues of three men armed, cut in ſtone, who ſlew Thomas Becket, archbiſhop of Canterbury, made a ſaint for this martyrdom; their names are adjoined,
Being tired with walking, we refreſhed ourſelves here with a mouthful of bread and ſome ale, and immediately mounted poſt-horſes, and arrived about two or three o’clock in the morning at Dover. In our way to it, which was rough and dangerous enough, the following accident happened to uſ: our guide, or poſtillion, a youth, was before with two of our company, about the diſtance of a muſket-ſhot; we, by not following quick enough, had loſt ſight of our friendſ; we came afterwards to where the road divided; on the right it was down hill and marſhy, on the left was a ſmall hill: whilſt we ſtopped there in doubt, and conſulted which of the roads we ſhould take, we ſaw all on a ſudden on our right hand ſome horſemen, their ſtature, dreſs, and horſes, exactly reſembling thoſe of our friendſ; glad of having found them again, we determined to ſet on after them; but it happened, through God’s mercy, that though we called them, they did not anſwer us, but kept on down the marſhy 74 road at ſuch a rate, that their horſeſ’ feet ſtruck fire at every ſtretch, which made us, with reaſon, begin to ſuſpect they were thieves, having had warning of ſuch; or rather, that they were nocturnal ſpectres, who, as we were afterwards told, are frequently ſeen in thoſe placeſ: there were, likewiſe, a great many Jack-w’-a-lantern, ſo that we were quite ſeized with horror and amazement! —— But fortunately for us, our guide ſoon after ſounded his horn, and we, following the noiſe, turned down the left-hand road, and arrived ſafe to our companionſ; who, when we had aſked them, if they had not ſeen the horſemen who had gone by uſ? anſwered, not a ſoul. Our opinions, according to cuſtom, were various upon this matter; but whatever the thing was, we were, without doubt, in imminent danger, from which that we eſcaped, the glory is to be aſcribed to God alone.
Dover, ſituated among cliffs, (ſtanding where the port itſelf was originally, as may be gathered from anchors and parts of veſſels dug up there) is more famous for the convenience of its port, which indeed is now much decayed, and its paſſage to France, than for either its elegance or populouſneſſ: this paſſage, the moſt uſed and the ſhorteſt, is of thirty miles, which, with a favourable wind, may be run over in five or ſix hours time, as we ourſelves experienced; ſome reckon it only eighteen to Calais, and to Boulogne ſixteen Engliſh miles, which, as Ortelius ſays in his Theatrum, are longer than the Italian.75
Here was a church dedicated to ſt. Martin by Victred, king of Kent, and a houſe belonging to the Knights Templarſ; of either there are now no remains. It is the ſeat of a ſuffragan to the archbiſhop of Canterbury, who, when the archbiſhop is employed upon buſineſs of more conſequence, manages the ordinary affairs, but does not interfere with the archiepiſcopal juriſdiction. Upon a hill, or rather rock, which on its right ſides is almoſt every where a precipice, a very extenſive caſtle riſes to a ſurpriſing height, in ſize like a little city, extremely well fortified, and thick ſet with towers, and ſeems to threaten the ſea beneath. Matthew Paris calls it the door and key of England; the ordinary people have taken it into their heads that it was built by Julius Cæſar; it is likely it might by the Romans, from thoſe Britiſh bricks in the chapel which they made uſe in their foundations. See Cambden’s Brittania.
After we had dined, we took leave of ENGLAND.
* This is another inaccurate account: the murders of Becket were Tracy, Morville, and Fitzurſe.
† Thoſe marked with a † are extinct, or forfeited.