[Back] [Blueprint] [Next]


ಌ Click on the footnote number and you will jump to it, then click that footnote number and you will jump back to where you were in the text [That line will be at the top of the screen].




116-44. King Edward left the Isle of Wight on July 11,1 and landed at Saint-Vaast de la Hougue in Cotentin July 12,2 with the intention of wasting Normandy and marching on Paris.3

The list of nobles who accompanied the King seems to be correctly drawn up on the whole. Thomas Beauchamp, Earl of Warwick, and William de Bohun, Earl of Northampton, are mentioned in the list given by Froissart,4 and are amongst those to whom wages are paid for services with the King from April 1346 to Nov. 1349.5

Ralph, Earl of Stafford, is not given by Froissart, and as he was Seneschal of Aquitaine, and took part in the siege of Aiguillon, Dec. 1345,6 it looks as though he may not have been with Edward when he sailed: but he is enumerated in Wetewang’s Accounts, as are the two former nobles, and he certainly joined the King in time to take part in the battle of Crécy.7

Robert Ufford, Earl of Suffolk, was certainly in the campaign of 1346, his name not only being found in Froissart,8 but also in the letters of Northburgh, who himself accompanied the army.9 William de Montagu, Earl of Salisbury, who was only sixteen at the time, is mentioned by an eyewitness as being knighted at Saint-Vaast;10 John Beauchamp, a brother of the Earl of Warwick, and John De Vere, Earl of Oxford, are named in most of the authorities;11 the former is said to have had the honour of carrying the King’s standard at the battle of Crécy.12 Raouls de Cobham is probably a mistake for Reginald, though there was also a Ralph who fought in the French wars;13 he does not seem, however, to have been a very important personage, whereas we find Reginald in almost every list,14 and constantly mentioned later on in the Poem itself. Sir Bartholomew de Burghersh presents a little difficulty because there were two of the same name — father and son. Dugdale speaks of them both as taking part in the French campaign of 1346, but according to documents printed by Rymer15 it hardly seems as though the father were present; for the King before setting sail gives him instructions as to the conduct of affairs in England, and writes him again on home matters as late as Sept. 8th. Only one of the name being mentioned not only here, but also in Froissart, and in Wetewang’s Accounts, 180 it is doubtless Sir Bartholomew, junior: indeed, in a mention made of him in the fragment of the Chronicle in the library of Corpus Christi College, Cambridge, this explanation is expressly added.16

Guy de Brian, although not named by the other chroniclers, occurs in Wetewang’s Accounts,17 and constantly in the French Rolls, as receiving payments or letters of protection,18 while in 1350 a grant of money was made to him for gallant deeds done at Calais.19

Sir Richard de la Vache is not mentioned by other chroniclers as present so early as 1346, unless the Richard de la Vere given by the Corpus Christi Chronicle20 can be the same person; but it looks as though he most probably joined the King later, since in 1347 a writ was directed to him requiring that he should supervise the armings in Bedfordshire and Buckinghamshire;21 and in Wetewang’s Accounts he is only stated as receiving pay, Mich. 1347;22 Thomas de Holland also received pay at this time, but he was certainly with the army from the first, as he distinguished himself by capturing the Comte d’Eu at Caen.23

Sir Richard Talbot’s name occurs in Wetewang’s Accounts, and in the French Rolls of 1347;24 he is also spoken of in the Corpus Christi MS. as taking part in the campaign of 1346;25 while Chandos and Audeley are repeatedly mentioned by all the authorities.

Thus the list given here, if apparently accurate so far as it goes, is not complete, and the choice of names is a little curious, such important persons as Godefroi de Harcourt and the Earl of Arundel being omitted.

The King sent to England for the aid due on the occasion of knighting Prince Edward,27 Sir Bart. de Burghersh, in his letter from Saint-Vaast, speaks of the honour being conferred on Mortimer (Earl of March) and Montagu (Earl of Salisbury). (26) John de Montagu is not mentioned by him, but he was certainly present, and the Queen’s Remembrancer Rolls speak of Sir John de Montagu being in his brother’s retinue from Saint-Vaast de la Hougue to Calais.28

154-64. In this account of Edward’s arrival in France Chandos gives a piece of information which is peculiar to his record, namely, that ‘Mareschaux Bertrans’ was there to prevent the landing of the English.

Robert Bertrand, Baron de Briquebec was Marshal of France,29 and in 1345 had been made captain of the sea-coast in Normandy;30 but, though there is some evidence that he was raising men at the time,31 the story of his opposition at Saint-Vaast appears rather improbable. We are fortunate in possessing really valuable authority upon these events in the shape of three letters from actual eye-witnesses — the King himself,32 Michael de Northburgh, his secretary,33 and Sir Bartholomew de Burghersh.34

None of these mention any difficulty in landing, but merely state that the army arrived at Saint-Vaast de la Hougue on the 12th, and stayed there to rest until the 18th of July.

Walsingham says there was resistance and gives a detailed account of the prowess of the Earl of Warwick, who with seven men defeated 100 men at arms and killed 60 of them, before the rest of the English landed.35 But apart from the general improbability of the story, 181 and the fact that Walsingham is not an original authority for this period, it would be curious if so striking an incident had remained unnoticed, not only in the letters mentioned above, but also in the Chronicle of Froissart, the narrator par excellence of such deeds. Jean le Bel, the original of Froissart’s narrative at this date, gives no hint of any hindrance being offered in the English landing,36 and Froissart’s additions as to Edward’s fall and the speeches on the subject certainly give little idea of any general fighting at the time.37

Probably Walsingham’s story can be explained by some later achievement of Warwick; for Burghersh writes that after the taking of Barfleur (July 14th) the Earl had skirmished successfully with the enemy.38 At all events, any resistance that may have been made can have been merely local and insignificant, not worthy of a marshal of France. Bertrand, who before this had been occupied at Aiguillon, appears first in most chronicles at the siege of Caen,39 and Chandos’ account is, to say the least of it, so doubtful, that it supports the view that this part of the poem must not be accepted with too much confidence.



1   On July 11 Edward issued a charter from St. Helens just before sailing. Rymer’s Foedera, ii, pt. iv, 203 (3rd edition).

2  This was a Wednesday. Cf. Northburgh’s Letter in Robert of Avesbury, De gestis mirabilibus regis Edwardi Tertii, edited E. Maunde Thompson (Rolls Series); letter of Edward III in Delpit, Collection des documents français en Angleterre, Paris, 1847; Le Héraut Chandos, edited Francisque Michel, 307, note..

3   Jean Le Bel. Les Vrayes Chroniques, Bruxelles, 1863, 8vo, ii. 64.

4  Froissart, edited Luce (Société de l’Histoire de France), vol. iii, 130.

5  Wetewang’s Accounts, published in Wrottesley, Crécy and Calais.

6  Froissart, vol. iii, p. xx, note 3.

7  Froissart. Cf. Dugdale, The Baronage of England, London, 1675, 2 vols., folio; vol. i, 159. Beltz, Memorials of the Order of the Garter, London, 1841. 8vo.

8  Froissart, iii. 130.

9  Robert of Avesbury and Froissart, i. 242, note.

10  Letter of Bartholomew de Burghersh, published in Adam Murimuth, Continuatio Chronicarum, edited E. M. Thompson (Rolls series), p. 200. Name also given in Corpus Christi College Library, Cambridge MS., No. 370, published in Moisant, Le Prince Noir, Paris, 1894.

11  Froissart, iii. 130; Wetewang’s Accounts; French Rolls.

12  Dugdale, i. 226; Wrottesley, Crécy and Calais.

13  Dugdale, ii. 69.

14  Froissart, iii. 130; Wetewang’s Accounts, published in Wrottesley; French Rolls, 20 Ed. III, 21 Ed. III, &c.

15  Rymer, ii, part iv, pp. 202, 205 (3rd edition).

16  Moisant, Le Prince Noir, Appendix.

17  Wrottesley, Creécy and Calais, Appendix.

18  French Rolls, 20 Ed. III, pt i, m. 9; 21 Ed. III.

19  Rymer, iii, pt. i, 52.

20  Moisant, Le Prince Noir, Appendix.

21  French Rolls, 20 Ed. III, pt. i, m. 21 (Wrottesley).

22  Wetewang’s Accounts.

23  Jean le Bel, ii. 72.

24  Wrottesley, Crécy and Calais, Appendix.

25  Moisant, Le Prince Noir, Appendix.

26  Rymer, ii, pt. iv, 205.

27  Adam Murimuth, p. 201; cf. also Galfridus le Baker de Swynebroke, Chronicon, edited E. M. Thompson.

28   Queen’s Remembrancer, 27 Ed. III, in Wrottesley, Crécy and Calais, Appendix.

29  Anselme, Histoire Généalogique de la Maison Royale de France, vol. vi, 688.

30  Sceaux de Clairembault (Collection de documents inédits), vol. ii, 362.

31  Corpus Christi MS., Moisant, Appendix.

32  Delpit, Collection des documents français en Angleterre. Paris, 1847.

33  Robert of Avesbury and Froissart, Panthéon Littéraire, edited Buchon, i. 219, note.

34  Murimuth, 201.

35  Walsingham, Ypodigma Neustriae (Rolls Series), 285.

36  Jean le Bel, ii. 69.

37  Froissart, iii. 133.

38  Murimuth, 201; cf. also Chronographia regum Francorum, edited Moranvillé, Paris, 1897 (Soc. de l’Hist. de France), 223.

39  Jean le Bel, ii. 71. Chronographia, 224; cf. Anselme, vol. vi, 688. Chronique des quatre premiers Valois, ed. Luce, Paris, 1882, 14, speaks of Bertrand being sent to the front together with Tancarville and Comte d’Eu, after the landing of the English, and adds that he then retired to the Castle of Caen.


[Back] [Blueprint] [Next]
Valid CSS!