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From Costume of Prelates of the Catholic Church According to Roman Etiquette, by the Rev. John A. Nainfa, S. S.; Baltimore: Metropolitan Press, John Murphy Company, Publishers; 1909; pp. 11-31.






§ I.  1.  Meaning of the words Prelate and Prelature.    2.  Origin of Prelature.    3.  Costume of Prelates.    4.  An objection.

§ II.  Different classes of Prelates:  The Pope; — Cardinals; — Patriarchs; — Archbishops and Bishops; — Regular Prelates; — Prelates of the Roman Court.


1. The word Prelate” (from præferre, to put before) is a general name for an ecclesiastical dignitary who has jurisdiction in foro externo, whether he be a member of the secular or of the regular clergy; his jurisdiction not being delegated, but inherent to the office he holds.1

Prelature (or Prelacy) is the status of a Prelate. This term applies to the honor given to a dignitary on account of the jurisdiction with which he is invested.

This is the canonical sense of the words Prelate and Prelature. In a wider sense, these designations are extended to other dignitaries of various kinds who have no 12 special jurisdiction, but are personally granted the title and honors of Prelates, namely the members of the Pope’s Court and Household. In this sense, the words Prelate and Prelature mean nothing else than a superiority of rank.2

In this manual, we use the word Prelate particularly in a liturgical sense. By Prelate, we understand a dignitary of the Catholic Church, who is entitled to wear a special costume, and whose rank deserves special honors, both in every-day life and in liturgical functions.

2. The teaching of the Council of Trent is that the Hierarchy3 of the Church is, by divine institution, composed of three elements, Bishops, Priests and Ministers.4

This simple division having been found insufficient in proportion as Christianity spread, the Church was led to create intermediary offices which, without interfering with the primitive division, constituted supplementary degrees, with the view of making the external administration of the Church easier and more effective. For instance, we see the institution of Metropolitans,5 of Patriarchs,6 the gradual growth in the importance of the Sacred College,7 etc. Thus, alongside of the Hierarchy of Order, divinely instituted, grew up the Hierarchy of administration, or of Jurisdiction, as it is called. Both together, harmoniously 13 combined, form that admirable organization, the Catholic Hierarchy.8

Moreover, Popes, desirous of showing their satisfaction or good will towards certain members of the Clergy, invested them with the title and honors of a higher rank, without however investing them with the functions pertaining to that rank, as, for instance, the Latin incumbents of the Eastern Patriarchates, the titular Archbishops and Bishops, the honorary Prelates of the Papal Court, etc.

3. When a man is raised to an ecclesiastical dignity, the only rule of conduct proper for Catholics to follow is to recognize the new dignitary as such, and to give him the honors due to his rank.

But this rank must be indicated in some manner, so that the faithful may recognize it and pay it due honor. For this purpose, the Church has assigned a special costume to various Prelates. Now, the obligation of a Prelate is correlative. Since it is the duty of the faithful to pay due respect to his dignity, the Prelate is reciprocally bound to make his dignity known by wearing the proper costume. Owing to personal sentiments of humility, one may sometimes be opposed to this solemn display; but the example given by great saints like the noble Cardinal St. Charles Borromeo, and the holy Bishop, St. Francis de Sales, who were scrupulously faithful in observing the least prescriptions of the Ceremonials, proves that such humility has no legitimate foundation.

4. If an objection is raised on the score of the anti-democratic appearance of the Church dignities, our only answer is that dignities are not in opposition to the democratic spirit of a people if they are within the reach of all. Such is the case for the dignities of the Church, in 14 which “the son of a peasant may reach the pontifical throne9 as well as a prince who has the prestige of wealth and noble blood.”10


The different classes of prelates who are the subjects of this preliminary chapter are: The Pope, who is the supreme Prelate; the Cardinals, Patriarchs, archbishops and Bishops, Regular Prelates and Prelates of the Roman Court.


Every Catholic knows who the Pope is and the high rank he holds in the Church. He is the “Bishop of Bishops,”11 the “Prelate of Prelates.” He possesses supreme and infallible authority to teach and govern the Church. He is above laws and canons,12 and though he has been despoiled of his temporal power, he is still recognized as a Sovereign by nearly all civilized nations.

In the present study, we have but to remark that the Pope, being the Supreme Prelate, wears a special prelatical costume, and that certain materials and colors are reserved for him, as we shall note later.


The Cardinals are those Prelates who form the Senate of the Church. Their name, from the Latin word cardo (a hinge), seems to indicate that the government of the Church rests on them as a door on its hinges.13


They are divided into three classes: Cardinal-Bishops, Cardinal-Priests and Cardinal-Deacons;14 but this distinction does not proceed from their ordination; an Archbishop as, for instance, the Archbishop of Baltimore, is a Cardinal-Priest; and a simple cleric may be a Cardinal-Deacon: the distinction originates in their titles; for the cardinalitial dignity does not belong to the Hierarchy of Order, but to that of Jurisdiction.15

The title of Cardinal is taken from the diocese or the church to which he is appointed as Cardinal; but ordinarily the word “title” is used only to mean the churches assigned to Cardinal-Priests. The episcopal sees of Cardinal-Bishops are usually called “suburban dioceses.”16

These dioceses, located in the suburbs of Rome (hence their name) form the Roman metropolitan province. They are:

OSTIA AND VELETRI, the Bishop of which is the Dean of the Sacred College;

PORTO AND SANTA RUFINA, a see reserved for the Sub-Dean of the Sacred College;

SABINA, which is not a city, but a territory;

PALESTRINA, the Bishop of which is entitled Prænestinus Episcopus;

FRASCATI, formerly Tusculum, a name which has been preserved in the title of the Bishop, who is styled Tusculanus Episcopus;

ALBANO, Albanensis Episcopus;

Each Cardinal-Priest has for title one of the churches of the city of Rome, which was formerly a parish church. The title of a Cardinal-Deacon is also a church, but generally 16 one which has been used as the chapel of a hospital or asylum, the deacons’ functions consisting in providing for the necessities of the poor. This “title” is, even at the present day, called Diaconia (Deaconry).17

As a body, the Cardinals are known as the Sacred College. The College is headed by the Dean, who is the first of the Cardinal-Bishops in order of seniority, and always Bishop of Ostia and Veletri.

The Cardinals’ functions generally consist in acting as advisers18 and auxiliaries to the Sovereign Pontiff in the administration of the Church. They also govern the Church during the vacancy of the Holy See and elect the new Pope.19

Their official title is “Eminentissimus et Reverendissimus Dominus20 and their dignity gives them a right of precedence immediately after the Pope and over all those who are not Cardinals.21

They enjoy a great many special privileges which are noted in all handbooks of Canon Law.22


Although, by divine institution and ordination, Bishops are all equal, yet Ecclesiastical Law has introduced certain modifications in episcopal authority, by virtue of which, some Bishops are superior to others, exercising over them a real authority, a participation, as it were, of the supreme Prelacy of the Sovereign Pontiff. Such are Patriarchs, Primates, Archbishops or Metropolitans.23


Literally the word Patriarch means a “Chief of Fathers.” The appellation is very ancient. The title of the early Bishops being that of “Father,” their leaders were quite naturally called “Patriarchs.”

This title of Patriarch was first given to the Bishops of Rome, Alexandria and Antioch, three episcopal sees the foundation of which is ascribed to St. Peter.24

To these three patriarchal sees were soon added the bishopric of Jerusalem, on account of the life, death, and resurrection of our Lord, and the bishopric of Constantinople, on account of the new importance given to the city as the residence of the Roman Emperor.25

But since the cities, in which the Eastern patriarchal sees were established, have fallen under the domination of infidels or schismatics, the Popes, in order to keep alive the memory of these illustrious sees, have continued to appoint Latin Patriarchs, who enjoy not only the titles of these sees, but the prerogatives and privileges of the patriarchal rank as well. However, they have no jurisdiction over the territory of their patriarchates. These great Prelates are called “Titular Patriarchs.”26 Pius IX. Made an exception to the usual practice, when he allowed the Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem a residence in his patriarchal city, and invested him with metropolitan jurisdiction over Jerusalem and its vicinity.27

Besides these Latin patriarchs, there are, in the East, Catholic patriarchs of the different rites, all of them having over their subjects the same traditional authority as the ancient patriarchs of the Eastern Church. Such are: The Patriarch of Antioch for the Melchites, residence at Damascus; the Patriarch of Alexandria for the Copts, residence at Cairo (Egypt); the Patriarch of Antioch for 18 the Maronites, residence at Bikorchi (Lebanon); the Patriarch of Antioch for the Syrians, residence also at Bikorchi; the Patriarch of Babylon for the Chaldeans, residence at Mossul (Mesopotamia), and the Patriarch of Cilicia for the Armenians, residence at Constantinople.28

Several Bishops in the Western Church have also been granted the title and honors of Patriarchs. These are the Patriarch of Venice (Italy); the Patriarch of Lisbon (Portugal); the Patriarch of the West Indies, who is the Chaplain Major of the Spanish Army (at present the Archbishop of Toledo, Spain); and the Patriarch of the East Indies, who is the Archbishop of Goa in India.29 These are known as “Minor Patriarchs.”

Primates were Bishops having authority or jurisdiction over the Archbishops of a country or of a considerable portion of a country. Nowadays, the jurisdiction of Primates has practically ceased, though some Bishops have kept the title, a merely honorary one. Such, for instance, are the Archbishop of Armagh, “Primate of All Ireland;” the Archbishop of Dublin, “Primate of Ireland;” the Archbishop of Lyons, “Primate of Gaul;” the Archbishop of Gran, “Primate of Hungary,” etc.30

In the Eastern Church, the corresponding title was that of Exarch.31

Primates have no special privilege with regard to the prelatical costume; but Patriarchs possess a certain number of distinctions which mark externally their high dignity: — All Patriarchs are Assistants at the Pontifical throne; they rank immediately after Cardinals, and have the privilege of wearing, even in Rome, the mozzetta over the mantelletta; their winter cloaks are adorned with a border of gold; etc. In Rome, they have the prerogative of 19 consecrating Bishops, if there is no Cardinal at hand to perform the ceremony.32


This is not the proper place to treat of the origin of the archiepiscopal dignity. Suffice it to say that an Archbishop is a Prelate invested with the episcopal character, and holding a rank immediately superior to that of simple Bishops.

An Archbishop is also called a “Metropolitan,” from the ancient custom of calling the Bishop of the capital (metropolis) of a Roman province metropolitanus.33 The title of Metropolitan is not given to titular Archbishops, since they have no ordinary jurisdiction over an ecclesiastical province.

The proper insignia of a Metropolitan Archbishop are the pallium34 and the cross.35

The pallium (or pall) consists of a circular band of white lamb’s wool, from which hang two pendants of the same material, one of which is meant to fall down the middle of the back, and the other over the center of the breast. Six little black crosses are embroidered on 20 the band and its lappets. The pallium is worn over the chasuble at solemn High Mass, on certain days determined by the Ceremonial of Bishops.

The “metropolitan cross,” commonly, though improperly, called “archiepiscopal cross,” is much like the processional cross,36 and is held or carried by a Subdeacon, or a member of the Prelate’s household, in such a way that the crucifix is always turned towards the Prelate.37

The pallium and the cross, being tokens of jurisdiction, should not be used outside of the Province over which the 21 Archbishop has authority.38 For this reason, titular Archbishops can not make use of the cross and pallium, since they have no territorial jurisdiction.

A Bishop (a word derived from the Greek ἐπίσκοπος “overseer”) is an ecclesiastical dignitary who has received, through his consecration, the full priestly character, and has the special charge of governing a determined portion of the Christian flock under the supervision of the Sovereign Pontiff.39

An Archbishop or a Bishop is called residential when he occupies a see canonically erected, with residence in and ordinary jurisdiction over the limited territory annexed to the city from which the see takes its name.

He is styled titular when he has no ordinary jurisdiction over the diocese of which he bears the title, his episcopal or archiepiscopal see being under the domination of infidels or schismatics.40 Formerly, Titular Bishops or Archbishops were also styled “Bishops (or Archbishops) in partibus infidelium” (in the countries of infidels); but, yielding to the protests of the schismatic Greeks, under whose domination most of these titular sees are located, Pope Leo XIII. abolished the title of “Bishop in partibus infidelium,” and decreed that henceforth only the title of “Titular Bishop (or Archbishop) of N. in N.” (the name of the episcopal city, with that of the ancient Roman province to which the city belonged) should be used: Thus “Right Reverend N. N. N., Titular Bishop of Rosea in Cilicia.”41

Archbishops and Bishops, when promoted to the rank of “Assistants at the Pontifical Throne,” become members of the Papal household. They obtain the privilege of a special place at the Papal “chapels,”42 where they act as book-bearer 22 and candle-bearer, and have the right of celebrating High Mass in presence of the Pope. Together with the brief of appointment, they receive from the Secretariate of Briefs a diploma written on parchment, giving the full list of their rights and privileges, many of which have fallen into disuse, especially those regarding the conferring of benefices.43

As members of the Papal Court, the Assistants at the Pontifical Throne are entitled to wear its insignia, namely, silk clothes in summer. But that privilege is conceded only for the time which they actually spend in Rome; their title of “Assistants” giving them no right of precedence or distinction among the other bishops, except at the Roman Court.44

The title is very seldom granted motu proprio, because the Roman Court wishes the precept retained: “Ask and you shall receive.” But, if a Bishop makes application, the title is bestowed upon him without the slightest difficulty.45

Together with the title of “Assistant at the Pontifical Throne,” the Bishop generally receives that of Roman Count, that is “Count of the Apostolic Palace and of the Lateran Court.”46


In Canon Law, the title of “Regular Prelate” is given to a religious superior having over his subjects a quasi-episcopal jurisdiction.47


Here, we take the title as that of a Prelate (in the broad, liturgical sense of this word) belonging to a Religious Order; and this practically includes only Cardinals, Bishops and Abbots.

The Cardinals and Bishops who are taken from a Religious Order still remain substantially bound by their religious vows, as far as these are not in opposition to their duties and dignity as Prelates.48

According to Common Law, they should continue to wear the habit of their Order. However, the custom of using the same form as that of the secular Prelates’ costume is tolerated. The color of the prelatical dress is the same as that of the religious habit, unless otherwise determined by the traditions of the Order (as, for instance, the Franciscans), or by special concessions of the Holy See.49

The different costumes of Prelates taken from Religious Orders have been regulated as follows:

Clerics Regular, i.e. those who have adopted the new type of religious life inaugurated in the sixteenth century, as Theatines, Barnabites, Jesuits, Oratorians, Passionists, Redemptorists, Paulists, etc., when appointed Cardinals or Bishops, adopt the costume of secular Prelates,50 because they are looked upon as such; with this restriction, however, that they have no right to make use of silk, except for the trimmings and accessories of their costume.51

Cardinals and Bishops belonging to the Orders of St. Basil, of Vallombrosa, and of the Regular Canons and 24 Hermits of St. Augustine (Augustinians) wear an entirely black costume. 52

The prelatical dress of the Benedictines is black with red lining and trimmings. The cloak (ferraiolo), however, should be entirely black.53

The monks of St. Sylvester, when promoted to Prelacy, dress in a beautiful blue costume.

The Camaldules, the Premonstratensians, the members of the Orders of Our Lady of Mercy and of the Holy Trinity, and the Olivetans, wear a prelatical costume entirely white.

The Cistercians, and the Reformed Cistercians (Trappists) wear cassock, simar, cincture, collaro and stockings made of white material; but the mozzetta, mantelletta and cloak (ferraiolo) are black. The cappa magna is also black, with a cape of ermine in winter and of white silk in summer. The color of the trimmings conforms to that of the different portions of the costume.54

The Prelates belonging to the Order of St. Dominic dress in the same colors as the Cistercians, but the trimmings, lining and buttons are all white, even for the black portions of the costume.

Franciscans, when promoted to Prelacy, lay aside the brown, or black material of their habit, and vest in a dress of ash-colored gray (a color which contemporary paintings ascribe to the habit worn by St. Francis). The cappa magna of these Prelates is of the same color, and is furred, in winter, with vicunia’s skin.


Alone in the Franciscan family, the Capuchins do not change the color of their dress when becoming Prelates. The winter cape of the cappa magna is made of otter’s fur.

Carmelite Prelates retain in their costume the two colors, brown and white, of the religious habit of the Order. The cassock, simar and cincture are brown; the mozzetta, mantelletta, ferraiolo and cappa magna, white. The Cardinals belonging to the Order have the privilege of wearing this costume lined and trimmed in purple, with purple stockings and a purple cincture.

All Cardinals, both secular and regular, wear the proper insignia of the Cardinalate — hat, biretta, and skull cap of scarlet silk — without regard to the color of their habit.55

Likewise, Bishops, whatever their origin, are all entitled to wear the hat with green cordons and tassels,56 the purple biretta57 and skull-cap,58 these being the proper insignia of the episcopal office.


There are two classes of Abbots, the Abbots nullius and the Abbots regiminis or “Simple Abbots.”

The Abbots nullius dioeceseos (i. e., belonging to no diocese), usually called Abbots nullius, are those who have full jurisdiction over a certain territory and its inhabitants, with absolute exemption from the authority of any Bishop.59


Simple Abbots are those who have jurisdiction in their monastery and its annexed territory, though this territory is within the limits of a diocese, the Bishop of which has a right of supervision, precedence and interference in the monastery itself.60

Both classes of Abbots, though not invested with the episcopal character, possess the privilege of using the “pontificals,”61 with this difference, that the Abbots nullius are allowed their use at all times and without restrictions, while the privilege of simple Abbots is limited by law and by the presence of the diocesan Bishop.  In an Abbey nullius, a Bishop is always considered “outside of his diocese,” even if the territory of the Abbey is enclosed in his own diocesan territory; while, on the contrary, in a simple Abbey, the Bishop, in whose diocese the Abbey is located, is in his diocese.62

Abbots regiminis, as well as Abbots nullius, add to their monastic habit the pectoral cross and the ring.63

They have also the privilege of vesting in the mozzetta when acting within the limits of their territory, and the mantelletta when they live outside. The mozzetta and mantelletta are of the same color as the religious habit.64 Regularly speaking, they should not make use of the rochet; but ordinarily this is conceded by special favor of the Holy See.65

An Abbot nullius in his territory may wear the cappa magna66 of the same shape and color as the Bishops belonging 27 to the Order; but this vestment, if not personally conceded, can not lawfully be worn by simple Abbots.

All Abbots, without regard to the color of their monastic habit, are free to wear a black hat with cords and tassels of the same color, and also a black biretta and a black skull-cap.  They place their black hat over their armorial shield.

Abbots General have, as a rule, the same honorary privileges as the Abbots nullius; but they have no territorial jurisdiction, their authority extending only over the monks of the Order.


The Pope, Cardinals, Patriarchs, Primates, Archbishops, Bishops and Abbots are properly and canonically called “Prelates.” But, besides these, there is, in the Roman Church, a class of officials invested by the Pope with the title and dignity of Prelates, who are commonly entitled “Roman Prelates,” or “Prelates of the Roman Court,” Romanae Curiae Antistites.

Formerly, these Prelates were simply the officers of the Papal Court, composing the household of the Sovereign Pontiff, or filling different offices in the “Congregations.” Little by little, especially during the last century, the number of these Prelates was largely increased by the conferring upon priests the title and honors attached to these offices, without, however, granting these new dignitaries any part in the general administration of the Church.

These honorary dignities, bestowed upon a priest, give him the title and honors attached to them, with a determined precedence over certain other classes of ecclesiastics; but do not affect his jurisdiction.

The papal household is composed of two classes of Prelates: the Prelates di mantelletta and the Prelates 28 di mantellone, so called from the kind of official garment they wear. The Prelates di mantelleta are really “Prelates,” their title personal and their appointment is for life. Their Prelature is something permanent, and they can be dismissed only for unworthiness or crime, after a regular trial, or motu proprio, by a positive act of the Sovereign Pontiff.

The Prelates di mantellone enjoy the title and honors of Prelates, though they are not Prelates in reality. Their Prelature is simply an office or an honor attached to an office, and it does not affect their personality. Their “Prelature” is not permanent, though they are not dismissed except for cause. However, they lose their title and their office on the Pope’s death, because they are regarded as his personal officers, and his successor is not bound to keep the same attendants.

When the new Pope is elected, they may apply for a renewal of their Prelacy, and the favor is generally granted without any difficulty. But, during the vacancy of the Holy See, and until they are reinstated by the newly-elected Pope, they must faithfully abstain from wearing the costume proper to the dignity which they have lost.

The Patriarchs, Archbishops and Bishops Assistants at the Pontifical Throne, and the Prelates di mantelletta, essentially constitute the household of the Sovereign Pontiff, hence their general title of “Domestic Prelates.”

If the Prelates di mantelletta belong to a “College,”67 they bear the title especially attributed to the members of that College; if they do not belong to a College, they are simply given the general title of Domestic Prelates.

The different Colleges of Domestic Prelates are:

The Patriarchs.


The Archbishops and Bishops Assistants at the Pontifical Throne.

The Protonotaries68 Apostolic.

The Auditors of the Rota.

The Clerks of the Rev. Apostolic Camera.

The Prelates voting and referees of the Signature.

The Abbreviators of the Major Park.

After these Prelates, come those who do not belong to a College, styled in general “Domestic Prelates.”

There are four classes of Protonotaries Apostolic:

1. The Protonotaries Apostolic de numero participantium, i. e., of the number of the participating, generally reckoned as “Protonotaries Apostolic di numero,” who form a “College” of seven Prelates, acting as official Notaries to the Sovereign Pontiff.

2. The Protonotaries Apostolic Supernumerary, who obtain their title from being appointed Canons of certain Roman Basilicas.

3. The Protonotaries Apostolic ad instar participantium (or, more usually, “ad instar”), who may obtain their title either by their appointment as Canons of certain Cathedrals, the Chapter of which have been granted such privilege, or — and this is the general rule — from being raised to that dignity by the Sovereign Pontiff. The Prelates, known as “Protonotaries Apostolic” in this country, belong to this third class of Protonotaries.

4. The “Titular (or Honorary) Protonotaries Apostolic,” also called “Black Protonotaries,” are not members 30 of the Pontifical Household; they enjoy the privileges of the prelatical rank only outside of the City of Rome, and, as will be said later, their prelatial dress is entirely black, without any addition of red or purple.

Such Protonotaries are nowadays very seldom directly appointed. But, since 1905, the title and honors of Titular Protonotaries Apostolic belong, pleno iure, to the Vicars General of Bishops, and to the Vicars Capitular of vacant dioceses, if these dignitaries are not Prelates otherwise.

The important privileges peculiar to the different classes of Protonotaries Apostolic have been recently modified, and are all expressed in the Constitution Inter multiplies, issued motu proprio by Pope Pius X., on February 21, 1905. Therefore, all manuals treating of the subject should be corrected according to the regulations of that document.69

The other Prelatial Colleges consist of Prelates who hold offices with practical functions in Roman Congregations and Tribunals and who are bound to reside in Rome.

After these, come those Prelates di mantelletta, who have been much increased numerically in these last years, who belong to no College, and who, therefore, are simply called “Domestic Prelates.”

As has been said, the Prelates di mantellone are the attendants on the person of the Holy Father. They belong to two different classes, Chamberlains and Chaplains.

Those who have to fulfill real functions in the Vatican Palace are styled “participating” or “di numero,” the others are honorary.

There order of precedence is as follows:

Private Chamberlains participating.

Private Chamberlains supernumerary.


Private Chamberlains of honor in abitio paonazzo.70

Private Chamberlains extra Urbem (outside the city).

Private Chaplains participating.

Private Chaplains of honor.

Private Chaplains extra Urbem (outside the city).

The Six Common Chaplains participating.

Common Chaplains supernumerary.

All these Prelates wear the same costume, and are given the same marks of honor. Those entitled extra Urbem, that is, “outside the City of Rome,” are never allowed to make use of their prelatical privileges in Rome. They could, however, do so in the presence 0f the Pope, should he happen to take up his residence outside of Rome, as was quite often done before the invasion of the Pontifical States by the House of Savoy.

All that regards the costumes of these Prelates will be found hereafter in the Chapter which treats of the Mantellone.

The classes of Prelates are so numerous that, though only a few lines have been devoted to each, this chapter has taken on unusual length. This, however, was necessary, as in the succeeding chapters, constant allusions and references will be made to these various classes of Prelates, allusions and references which would not be easily understood without the general notions just indicated.


1   BENEDICT XIV., De syn. dioec., Book II., ch. XI. — BOUIX De Episc. Tom. I., pp. 525, seq. — TAUNTON, The Law of the Church, art. PRELATE, p. 499.

2  Frequently, authors use the words Prelature and Prelacy to designate all Prelates taken as a body.

3   The word HIERARCHY is taken here in its proper canonical meaning of a body of clergy of different ranks or orders, enjoying ecclesiastical powers according to their several degrees. The commonly received meaning of the word Hierarchy, namely that of “the body of the Bishops of a country,” is incorrect.

4  “If anyone say that, in the Catholic Church, there is not a hierarchy, instituted by divine authority, which consists of Bishops, Priests, and Ministers, let him be anathema.” — (Council of Trent, Session XXIII., can. 2.)

5  PHILLIPS, Du droit ecclésiastique, Tom. II., p. 63.

6  PHILLIPS, op. cit., Tom. II., pp. 25, seq. — Council of Nicæa, can.> VI.

7  FERRARIS, Bibliotheca, art. Cardinales.

8  TAUNTON, Law of the Church, art. HIERARCHY, pp. 358, 359. — FERRARIS Bibliotheca canonica, — art. Hierarchia ecclesiastica.

9  This is strikingly exemplified in the person of our beloved Pontiff, His Holiness PIUS X., whose humble origin is well known to all.

10  p. A. BAART, The Roman Court, p. 333.

11  TERTULLIAN, De pudicitia, I., 6.

12  Council of the Vatican, Const. Pastor aeternus, c. 2, 3, 4.

13  SOGLIA, Institutiones iuris publici, Part II., § 41, and others.

14  SOGLIA, ibid. — BOUIX, De curia romana, p. 1, etc.

15  FERRARIS, Bibliotheca canonica, ad art. Cardinales, II.

16  SOGLIA, op. et loc. cit.. — BOUIX, loc. cit.

17  FERRARIS, Bibliotheca, art. Cardinales, I. — SIXTUS V., Constit. Postquam (Dec. 3, 1586).

18  Council of Trent, Session XXV., Chap. I., De reformatione.

19  Cap. Ubi peric., 3. De elect. in 6o.

20  Decree of Pope URBAN VIII. (June 10, 1630).

21  EUGENE IV., Constit. Non mediocri.

22  BOUIX, De curia romana. — SOGLIA, Inst. iur. publ., part. II., etc.

23  PIUS IX., Constit. Reversurus (July 9, 1867).

24  PHILLIPS, Du droit ecclésiastique, Tom. II., p. 25.

25  PHILLIPS, loc. cit..

26  BENNETTIS, Privil. S. Petri, p. 134. — PHILLIPS, op. cit., Tome II., p. 45.

27  Constit. Nulla celebror, July 22, 1847 PIUS IX.).

28   Mgr. BATTANDIER, Annuaire Pontifical, 1906. — See also Gerarchia, yearly.

29  PHILLIPS, loc. cit. p. 47. — BATTANDIER, op. cit.

30  BOUIX, De Episc., Part IV., sect. 1, chap. 2.

31  FERRARIS, Bibliotheca canonica, art. Exarchi et Primates.

32  GRIMALDI, Les Congrégations romaines, ch. IX., p. 131. — Mgr. MARTINUCCI, Man. Caer., V., ch. 11.

33  Council of Nicæa, can. IV. — BOUIX, De Episc., Tom. I., pp. 460 et seq.

34  PONTIFICALE ROMANUM, De pallio. — Caer. Episc., I., xvi.  — MANN, Lives of the Popes, Tom. I., Appendix.

35   Clem. 2. De privilegiis. — THOMASSIN, De vet. Et nova Eccl. Discipl. (in loco).

36  This cross should not be double-armed.

37  Caer. Episc. I., ii. 4. — I., iv. 1. — II., viii. 27. — II., xxii. 3. — I., xv. 2. — Mgr. MARTINUCCI, Man. Caer., V., ch. iii, n. 60, etc.

38  Cap. 4, De auct. et usu pallii.

39  Can. Qui. Episcopatum, 11. caus. 8, quaest. 7.

40  BENEDICT XIV., De syn. dioec., Book II., ch. vii. — LEO XIII., Constit. In Suprema (June 4, 1882).

41  Decree of the Propaganda (Febr. 27, 1882.) — LEO XIII.’s Const. cit.

42  A “chapel” is a religious service at which the Pope officiates or assists.

43  GRIMALDI, op. cit., ch. V., pp. 61. 62. — FISQUET, Cérémonies de Rome (passim). — Baron GERAMB, Visit to Rome, p. 156. — T. POPE, Holy Week in the Vatican, p. 352.

44  Mgr. BARBIER DE MONTAULT, Le costume et les usages ecclésiastiques., Tom. I., p. 54.

45  GRIMALDI, op. cit., ch. V., p. 62.

46  Mgr. BARBIER DE MONTAULT, Traité pratique . . . Tom. I., p. 473. — GRIMALDI, loc. cit., op. cit., ch. xxvii., p. 484. — Mgr. A. BATTANDIER, Annuaire pontifical (1899, p. 365).

47  Cf. SUAREZ, De Relig., tract. VIII., lib. II., cap. II., num 7. — FERRARIS, Bibliotheca, art. Praelatus regularis and Regulares.

48  SUAREZ, De Religio., tract. VIII., lib. III., cap. XVI. — Cap. Si Religiosus 27, De elect. in 6o. — S. C. C., Decemb. 7, 1639.

49  Cap. Clerici, 15, De vita et honestate cleric. — FERRARIS, Bibliotheca, art. Episcopus. VII. — Caer. Episc. I., i., 4.

50  Caer. Episc. I., iii., 4. — MARTINUCCI, Man. Caer., V., ch. 11.

51  BARBIER DE MONTAULT, Traité pratique . . . Tom. II., p. 524. — MARTINUCCI, loc. cit., VI. Appendix. — GRIMALDI, op. cit., ch. VIII., p. 114.

52  BARBIER DE MONTAULT, op. cit. Tom. II., p. 523. — MARTINUCCI, loc. cit.

53  GRIMALDI, op. cit., ch. VIII., p. 114; ch. XXIX., p. 514.

54  The costume here described is the one worn in Rome and in Italy by the Prelates of the two branches of the Cistercian Order. Outside of Italy, custom prevails that the Prelates of the Reformed Cistercians wear a prelatial costume entirely white.

55  GREGORY XIV., Const. Sanctissimus. — BATTANDIER, Annuaire Pontificat (1903), p. 359.

56  Caer. Episc. I., i., 4. — MARTINUCCI, Man. Caer. V., ch. II., n. 19.

57  LEO XIII., Const. Praeclaro divinae gratiae.

58  PIUS IX., Const. Ecclesiarum omnium.

59  BENEDICT XIV., De syn. dioec., Book II., ch. XI. — FERRARIS, Bibliotheca, art. Abbas.

60  SEBASTIANELLI, De personis, p. 350, n. 297.  — FERRARIS, loc. cit.

61  PIUS VII., Constit. Decet Romanum Pontificem, Jul 23, 1823.

62  Cap. Cum personae. — Cap. Si Papa, De privilegiis, in 6o. — Extrav. Ambitiosae, De rebus Ecclesiae non alienandis, etc. — S. R. C., February 7, 1604.

63   PIUS VII, Const. cit. — Extensive decree of the S. R. C., Sept. 17, 1659.

64  TAUNTON, The Law of the Church, art.ABBAT.,” p. 3, n. 10.

65  S. R. C., Decree of Septemb. 17, 1659, n. 9. — BATTANDIER, Annuaire (1909), p. 421.

66  BARBIER de MONTAULT, Le costume et les usages ecclésiastiques, Tom. I., p. 375.

67  The word “College” means a group or assembly of Prelates invested with the same title, enjoying the same honors and privileges, and performing the same functions at the Roman Court.

68  Throughout this treatise the word Protonotary is spelled without the “h,” which is usually inserted. Protonotary is derived from protos, first, not from prothos. The Latin, Italian, French, Spanish languages retain proto in Protonotary, just as in protomartyr and similar compound words. Can any good reason be given for writing prothonotary, except that some one else has done it? — p. A. BAART, The Roman Court, Preface.

69  This important document is given in full in Appendix II.

70  “In purple habit.”


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